What are the Supreme Logic Principles?

The logical principles supreme are those premises that govern the thought process, giving order, meaning and rigor.

According to the traditional logic, these principles are so broad that they apply to mathematics, physics, and all other sciences.

supreme logical principles

The supreme logical principles reflect facets of the objects of the material world so simple and obvious that they occur in all of them.

Although there are those who say they are Western arbitrariness, the truth is that they are principles as certain as universal. This is so, fundamentally, for two reasons:

  • They are self-evident.
  • To deny them, you must rely on them. That is, they are inevitable.

The importance of these principles lies in the fact that it is necessary to reason well to find correct solutions to the problems being analyzed.

Knowing the principles or rules that guarantee a correct reasoning, helps to solve possible problems in a better way.

And the science that has been dedicated to investigate and to reflect on these principles, is the logic.

This discipline can be:

to) Theoretical : Because it provides methods for differentiating between right and wrong reasoning.

b) Practice : Because it allows us to identify the correct reasoning, it also makes it possible to make a judgment of value on the incorrect reasoning.

What are the supreme logical principles?

Following the postulates of the traditional logic, the supreme logical principles are:

The principle of identity

"To that"

This is a principle that implies that an object is the one that is and not another.

All material objects have something that identifies them, something inherent and invariable in spite of the modifications that can suffer through the passage of time.

This means that the challenge is to make a clear distinction between the characteristics of objects and use terms or words to describe those qualities.

It is important to point out that this principle refers to objects or things, so it is an ontological principle.

It is also necessary to keep in mind that the meaning of the words used in the reasoning, should remain the same.

The crucial thing is that, as José Ferrater Mora indicates,"it belongs to everything to". That is, the specific characteristics (a) belong to the individual uniquely (a).

Another way of formulating the principle of identity is:

If p then p

p, if and only if p

The principle of non-contradiction

This is the principle according to which it is impossible for a proposition to be true and false at the same time and under the same circumstances.

Once a proposition is assumed to be true or false, logic requires that propositions derived from them be accepted as true or false, as the case may be.

This implies that if in the course of an inference the value of truth or falsity of a proposition changes with respect to that assumed at the beginning, then that argument is invalidated.

This means that, once a certain value of truth (true or false) is assumed, for the propositions being considered, that value must remain identical throughout its development.

One way of formulating this principle would be:"It is impossible for A to be B and not for B at the same time."

It may happen that the object is something now, and that it is not something later. For example, a book may be trash, loose leaves, or ashes.

While the principle of identity dictates that a thing is a thing, this principle of non-contradiction indicates that a thing is not two things at the same time.

The principle of the excluded third

Just as the principle of noncontradiction entails pointing to a proposition as true or false, this principle involves choosing between two unique options:"A is equal to B"or"A is not equal to B".

This means that everything is or is not. There is no third option.

It rains or it does not rain, for example.

That is, between two contradictory propositions, only one is true and one is false.

For a reasoning to be correct, it is crucial to rely on the truth or falsity of one of the propositions. Otherwise, it falls into contradiction.

This principle can be represented or plotted like this:

If it is true that"S is P", then it is false that"S is not P".

The principle of sufficient reason

According to this principle nothing happens without there being a sufficient reason for it to happen thus and not otherwise.

This principle complements that of non-contradiction and grounds the truth of a proposition.

In fact, this principle is the cornerstone of experimental science, since it states that everything that happens is due to a determining reason and that means that if that reason is known, what will happen in the future could also be known in advance .

From this perspective, there are events that seem random only because their causes are not known.

However, the fact that these causes are unknown does not mean that they do not exist. They simply reveal the limitation of the human intellect.

The principle of sufficient reason involves giving the explanation of events. Find the why of things.

It is to base the explanations that are made on the different past, present or future events.

This principle also grounds the previous three because for a proposition to be true or false, there must be a reason.

The German philosopher Wilhelm Leibniz he asserted that"nothing exists without a determining cause or reason".

In fact, for Leibniz, this principle and that of non-contradiction, govern all human reasoning.

Aristotle was the one who proposed almost all the logical principles supreme, except for the principle of sufficient reason that was proposed by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, in his work Theodicy.

References

  1. Di Casto Elisabetta (2006). Logic reasoning. Retrieved from: web-records.blogspot.com.
  2. Heidegger, Martín (s / f). The principle of identity. Retrieved from: revista.javeriana.edu.co.
  3. Moreland, J. (2015). What Are the Three Laws of Logic? Retrieved from: arcapologetics.org.
  4. Ramírez, Axel (2012). Philosophy II: The supreme logical principles. Recovered from: filosofiaminervaruizcardona.blogspot.com.
  5. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2000) Aristotle's Logic. Retrieved from: plato.stanford.edu.
  6. National Autonomous University of Mexico (2013). Principles of logic. Retrieved from: objects.unam.mx.

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