What are the branches of science?

The Branches of science Are divided mainly into three groups: natural sciences, formal sciences and social sciences.

  • Natural Sciences : They study the natural phenomena and the nature, they cover all the physical aspects of the reality.
  • Formal sciences : They are precise, they study mathematics and logic, they are not based on experimentation but on mental abstraction and reasoning.
  • Social Sciences : Study the human factors of reality, human behavior and societies.

Branches of science

natural Sciences

Composed of all science that studies matter, energy, their interrelation and transformation. It studies the physical and natural aspect of the world and the phenomena that occur in nature.

Observation is a fundamental part of it and because it is an empirical science, it justifies and verifies the information obtained through experimentation.

It covers a large area of ​​knowledge and seeks to decipher the theories and laws that govern the natural world.

The same, in turn is divided into:

Physical sciences

Disciplines centered in the study of the natural phenomena of the earth, atmosphere and space.

Physical scientists are people who enjoy studying the earth, its components and processes.

It includes several fields and branches:

  • Physical: It is not the same as physical science. Physics is a branch of the natural sciences that is responsible for studying matter (bodies) and their movement through space and time, as well as their relationship with energy and force in order to understand how the Universe and its environment. It analyzes the transformations or physical phenomena and is closely related to the other branches of the natural sciences. It is one of the oldest academic disciplines, dating back to the time of antiquity, its beginnings can be placed with the first Galileo experiments in the second half of the sixteenth century.
  • Chemistry: Studies the matter and the changes that it undergoes at atomic and molecular level. Physics is also in charge of studying the subject but with a different approach, objective and theme, in addition, in terms of their ranges and methods, they have different roles. It is a science that allows the connection with the other natural sciences, for that reason, is often called"central science"It has two major branches: organic chemistry, which studies the compounds formed by carbon; And inorganic chemistry, which studies compounds that are not formed by carbon.
  • Earth sciences: Also called geoscience, studies the materials with which the Earth is composed, its structure, morphology, evolution and dynamics. It offers us the opportunity to understand why natural phenomena have favored and threatened the life of man. It includes the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans, biosphere and the solid surface of the earth.
  • Geology: Is responsible for studying the planet Earth and all that compose it, processes that occur in the interior of the earth, in the rocks, atmosphere, crust, etc. Geologists work to understand the history of our planet, the better they can understand it, the more easily they can predict future events from the influence of the past.
  • Ecology: Is dedicated to the study of the relationships between living organisms and the environment.
  • Oceanography: Marine science that studies the ocean, among its objects of study are: marine organisms, ecosystem dynamics, waves, tectonic plates, properties of chemicals found in the ocean, etc.
  • Meteorology: Is dedicated to the study of the atmosphere, atmospheric phenomena and their effects on the climate. Meteorologists use the scientific method to observe, explain and predict the climate.
  • Space Science or Astronomy: Studies everything related to outer space, planets, stars, space travel, space exploration, etc.

life sciences

It comprises all the sciences that have for object of study the biological aspect, the life of the organisms, plants, animals and humans.

  • Biology: Science that is dedicated to the study of living beings, their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution and taxonomy. It contains many branches, subdivisions, topics and disciplines.
  • Zoology: Studies animals and animal life, including its structure, physiology, development, behavior and classification.
  • Botany: Scientific study of plants, their structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, chemical properties, etc.

Social Sciences

Basically it is an empirical science that focuses on the study of society, the way individuals behave and their influence in the world.

It tells us about the world beyond our immediate experience, gives a much broader vision and explains how society works.

It ranges from the causes of unemployment, how and why people vote until it is what makes people feel happy.

Among some of the social sciences we can find:

Sciences related to social organization

  • Politics: Science that is dedicated to the study of the government and the organization of the states.
  • Sociology: Studies human societies and all the phenomena that occur in them.
  • Law: Science that studies the laws and the control of the social order.
  • Anthropology: Studies the individual as a whole.
  • Geography: Studies the Earth, the ecological environment and the societies that inhabit it.
  • Sciences related to economic organization:
  • Economy: Studies the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services locally, regionally or nationally.
  • Behavioral Sciences:
  • Psychology: Science that is dedicated to study the mental processes.

Formal sciences

It is not an empirical science, it is not concerned with the validation of theories based on observation, but rather with the formation of systems based on definitions and rules.

It is subdivided into several branches, which are analytic unlike the social and natural sciences that are empirical.

  • Statistics: Includes the study, collection, organization and interpretation of data.
  • Logic: Is based on valid inference and demonstration.
  • Mathematics: Studies the properties and relationships of abstract entities.
  • Computer's science: Study of all the procedures that allow to transmit information in a digital way.

Applied Science

It is based on the application and transfer of scientific knowledge to a physical environment, that is, to implement science in daily life and its immediate problems. Take the information you already handle and apply it to solve a problem.

It can be used within the biological sciences and physical sciences.

Some examples of applied science are:

  • Engineering
  • Medicine
  • Biotechnology
  • Agronomy
  • Architecture
  • electronics
  • Computing


  1. McDaniel, Mellisa; Sprout, Erin; Boudreau, Diane; Turgeon, Andrew. (2012). " Meteorology ". From nationalgeographic.org.
  2. Osler, Margaret; Spencer, J & Brush, Stephen (2016). " Physical Science ". From Britannica.com.
  3. Porto, Julián & Merino, María (2009). " Definition of Natural Sciences ". Of definition.

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