The Branches of history Are military history, history of religion, social history, cultural history, diplomatic history, economic history, environmental history, world history, universal history, intellectual history, gender history and public history.
The history Is the discovery, compilation, organization, analysis and presentation of information about past events.
History can also mean a continuous, typically chronological record of important or public events or a particular trend or institution.
Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of knowledge that uses a narrative to examine and analyze the sequence of events, and sometimes attempts to objectively investigate the patterns of cause and effect that determine events.
Historians discuss the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing"perspective"on the problems of the present.
Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are often classified as cultural heritage and not as the"disinterested research"needed by the discipline of history. The events of the past before the written record are considered prehistory.
Among the fifth-century BC scholars. The Greek historian Herodotus is considered the"father of history". Herodotus' methods together with his contemporary Thucydides form the basis for the modern study of history.
The modern study of history has many different fields, including those that focus on certain regions and those that focus on certain topical or thematic elements of historical inquiry.
Hence the importance of history has global relevance for its contributions to each region, culture and socio-political class.
As one Chilean writer would once say referring to history:"the importance of knowing the past to understand the present and to imagine the future."
Main branches of history
Due to the multitude of areas of study in history, this discipline has diversified to provide a more objective approach to specific areas through methods and procedures that adapt to the needs of specific knowledge.
Military history refers to warfare, strategies, battles, weapons, and combat psychology.
The"new military history"since the 1970s has been more concerned with soldiers than with generals, with psychology rather than tactics and with the wider impact of war on society and culture.
History of religion
The history of religion has been a major theme for secular and religious historians for centuries, and continues to be taught in seminaries and academia.
Among the main newspapers are the History of the Church, the Catholic Historical Review and the History of Religions.
Topics range from political, cultural and artistic dimensions to theology and liturgy. This theme studies religions from all regions and areas of the world where human beings have lived.
Social history is the field that includes the history of ordinary people and their strategies and institutions to deal with life.
In its"golden age"it was a major growth field in the 1960s and 1970s among scholars, and is still well represented in departments of history.
The"old"social history, before the 1960s, was a hodgepodge of themes without a central theme, and often included political movements, such as populism, that were"social"in the sense of being outside the elite system.
Social history contrasts with political history, intellectual history, and the history of great men.
The English historian GM Trevelyan saw it as the bridge between economic history and political history, reflecting that"without social history, economic history is sterile and political history is unintelligible."
Cultural history replaced social history as the dominant form in the 1980s and 1990s.
It often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to examine language, popular cultural traditions, and cultural interpretations of historical experience.
Examines the narrative records and descriptions of knowledge, customs, and past arts of a group of people.
How peoples built their memory of the past is an important topic. Cultural history includes the study of art in society as well as the study of images and human visual production (iconography).
Diplomatic history focuses on relations between nations, mainly with respect to diplomacy and the causes of wars.
More recently, the causes of peace and human rights . It usually presents the views of the foreign office, and long-term strategic values as the driving force of continuity and change in history.
This type of political history is the study of the conduct of international relations between states or across state borders over time.
The historian Muriel Chamberlain points out that after the First World War "Diplomatic history replaced constitutional history as the flagship of historical research, at once the most important, most accurate, and most sophisticated of historical studies."
He adds that after 1945, there was an inverted tendency, allowing social history to replace it.
Although economic history has been well established since the late nineteenth century, academic studies in recent years have increasingly shifted towards economics departments and away from traditional history departments.
Economic history deals with the history of individual business organizations, business methods, government regulation, labor relations, and impact on society.
It also includes biographies of individual companies, executives and entrepreneurs.
Environmental history is the study of human interaction with the natural world over time.
In contrast to other historical disciplines, the active role that nature plays in influencing human affairs stands out. Environmental historians study how humans form their environment and are molded by it.
Environmental history emerged in the United States from the environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s, and much of its momentum still comes from current global environmental concerns.
The field was founded on conservation issues, but has expanded in scope to include a more general social and scientific history and can deal with cities, population or sustainable development.
Like all stories, it happens in the natural world. Environmental history tends to focus on particular time scales, geographical regions or key issues.
It is also a strongly multidisciplinary subject that draws heavily on the humanities and natural sciences.
World history, global history, or transnational history (not to be confused with diplomatic or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. Examine the story from a global perspective.
It should not be confused with comparative history, which like world history, deals with the history of multiple cultures and nations, but does not do so on a global scale.
World history looks for common patterns that arise in all cultures. World historians use a thematic approach, with two main focal points: integration (how the processes of world history have attracted the people of the world) and the difference (how the patterns of world history reveal the diversity of experiences Human).
Universal history is a term for a work that aims at presenting the history of humanity as a whole, as a coherent unit.
Universal history in the Western tradition is commonly divided into three parts, namely: ancient, medieval and modern.
A worldwide chronicle chronicles the history from the beginning of written information about the past to the present.
Universal history encompasses the events of all times and nations, with the only limitation being that they must be established to make possible a scientific treatment of them.
Intellectual history emerged in the mid-twentieth century, focusing on intellectuals and their books on the one hand, and on the other, in the study of ideas as disembodied objects with a career of their own.
History of the genre
The history of the genre is a branch of History and Gender Studies, which looks at the past from a gender perspective. It is in many ways a consequence of the history of women.
Despite its relatively short life, the History of Gender (and its Antecedent History of Women) has had a rather significant effect on the general study of history.
Public history describes the wide range of activities carried out by people with some background in the discipline of history who generally work outside specialized academic settings.
The practice of public history has deep roots in the areas of historical conservation, archival science, oral history, curatorship of museums and other related fields.
Some of the most common scenarios for public history are museums, historic homes and historic sites, parks, battlefields, archives, film and television companies and all levels of government.
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