What are baciliformes?

The Bacilliferous Are the juvenile form of neutrophils in the blood. They appear when an increase in neutrophils is needed in the bloodstream and the cord does not have the ability to deliver them. Neutrophils that are not yet ripe and called bacilliformes are sent to the stream.

The increase in blood smears indicates a deviation to the left hemogram, which may be an indicator of neutrophilia, indicating an increase in neutrophils in the blood.

Bacilliformes in blood

This can be an indicator of infections, inflammation, stress , Significant damage to tissues such as burns, trauma, heart attacks, among others.

Characteristics of neutrophils

Neutrophils, also called neutrocytes, are the most abundant white cell type in the human body and in most mammals. Its function is vital for the innate immune system.

When neutrophils do not reach full development, they appear in the blood in the form of bacilliform neutrophils, that is, in the form of a rod, since the cell does not reach full maturity when it is released into the bloodstream.

Neutrophils are formed from mother cells In the marrow of the bones. Their life cycle is short and highly mobile, being able to enter areas of tissue where other cells or molecules could not.

They are divided into segmented neutrophils and band neutrophils. They are part of the polymorphonuclear family of cells, together with eosinophils and basophils.

They are a type of phagocyte and are normally found in the bloodstream. During the onset of an inflammatory phase caused by a bacterial infection, environmental exposure or some types of cancers, neutrophils are the first line of response to reach the site of inflammation, moving through the veins and arteries and then through Interstitial tissue.

The arrival of neutrophils to specific sites of infection is caused by the chemotaxis factor, where neutrophils move towards the site of the lesion or the presence of bacteria following chemical factors that are attractive for neutrophils. These include bacterial peptides, extracellular matrix degradation products, mediator lipids, among others.

Thus, neutrophils are the predominant cells in infectious processes where we find the presence of pus, which has a white and yellow appearance because of the coloration of the neutrophils.

Wherever there is acute inflammation, neutrophils are present. They are the first cells that arrive in minutes to any part of the body where there is a trauma.

But they can not always resolve infections on their own, needing support from the rest of the cells of our immune system, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, cells that are also involved in the response to infection.

Young neutrophils

The increase of young neutrophils in the blood cell count or hemogram is known as an increase in baciliformes. This in the blood test is called"left shift"and is an indication of increased neutrophil utilization resulting in increased production of these.

A deviation to the left indicates that a particular cell population in the blood count has moved to the left, ie towards more immature cells (than we would normally see in the analysis). Almost always a deviation to the left has realization with the series of neutrophils and we find presence of baciliformes.

In neutrophilia - that is, the increase in neutrophils in the bloodstream - we see a 12% increase in the presence of bacilliform neutrophils.

The most common cause of this deviation to the left is that the patient has an infection. During a bacterial infection, the body uses a lot of neutrophils. Then, from the onset of infection to recovery, dynamic changes occur in white cell cells, which demonstrate the seriousness of bacterial infection, from moderate to severe.

This is why the most important deviations are seen in major infections, such as severe sepsis, typhoid fever And some types of flus.

The most common cause of a deviation from the blood count to the left, with a change as fast as significant is the presence of a bacterial infection, although there are also other pathological causes that can generate it.

The deviations to the left of the hemogram, which are indicative of the presence of bacilliform neutrophils, do not occur either in the early stages of infection or in the later phases. Thus, the collection of data at a single time is not adequate to diagnose a bacterial infection.

On the other hand, if constant tests are performed that determine the left-sided hemogram, they will reflect the neutrophil consumption during a bacterial infection in real time and allow a more accurate evaluation of the patient's condition. This is known as real neutrophilia.

Another cause that may lead to an increase in neutrophils and bone marrow to send bacilliform neutrophils to the torrent are noninfectious inflammations such as asthma, major burns, postoperative conditions, rheumatic fever, vascular diseases, gout and Myocardial infarction.

It can also be associated with acute hemorrhages and metabolic problems such as preeclampsia and ketoacidosis. Even in cases of extreme exercise and fatigue as in pregnancy, during labor and in newborns.

There are diseases that can cause a preponderance of bacilliform neutrophils, these are chronic myeloid leukemia, myelofibrosis and myeloid metaplasia, among others.

It also occurs in rapidly growing neoplasms, where the tumor needs a large amount of blood and increases the production of cells in the bone marrow. This occurs in the case of squamous cell cancers.

Bacteria and baciloform viruses

The term"bacilliform"can also be applied to stick-shaped bacteria or viruses with the same morphology, but the most common meaning is the finding within the hemogram, which in most cases indicates a normal behavior of the organism versus A bacterial infection.


  1. Neutrophil left shift and white blood cell count markers of bacterial infection. Retrieved from ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
  2. Retrieved from emedicine.medscape.com.
  3. Shift to the left. Retrieved from medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com.
  4. Chapter 67: Functions of Neutrophils. Williams Hematology. Retrieved from medtextfree.wordpress.com.
  5. Left Shift. Retrieved from pathologystudent.com.
  6. Neutrophil chemotactic factors. Retrieved from link.springer.com.

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