The Components of an ecosystem Are divided into: biocenosis, composed of living factors or biotic elements that interact through processes such as predation, parasitism, competition and symbiosis; And the biotope, consisting of non-living components or abiotic elements (water, rocks, land, rivers, climate).
These components depend on each other and can not exist without each other. A good example is water, which although it is an abiotic element, is part of most of the biotic elements.
In this sense, the human being is composed of 70% water, which illustrates the relationship between living and inert components where there is a constant flow of energy and matter.
Ecosystems are classified into: terrestrial (forest, tundra and others), aquatic (marine and freshwater), hybrid and microbial.
The main components of an ecosystem
Flora or plants
They are the set of vegetation of a region and they change according to the soil, the climate and the relief of the region.
The flora can be native, introduced and harvested. The flora arvense refers to the undesirable plants, like bad grasses. However, it should be noted that this definition developed by scientists does not mean that these plants are unnecessary for the ecosystem. Without them, any ecosystem could collapse.
Formally the kingdom Plantae is divided into terrestrial plants and algae. In turn, terrestrial plants are divided into four groups bryophytes, lycopodia, ferns and seedlings.
According to their height the plants are classified in trees, shrubs, woods and herbs characterized by: lack of locomotive capacity, cell walls composed of cellulose, being autotrophic, that is to say, they make their own food. Although there are carnivorous or insectivorous plants that feed on insects. For example, the venus flytrap.
As for their way of exchanging gases with the environment, they breathe carbon dioxide and expel oxygen, absorbing ultraviolet light.
Plants interact with fungi in a special way as they explore the soil and exchange the nutrients they receive for products of photosynthesis. All plants have three parts: root, stem and leaves. Some also have fruits and flowers.
As a subtype, algae play an important role in marine ecosystems and are distinguished from plants in that they can be unicellular or multicellular. They are eukaryotic organisms, that is to say, that live in humid ecosystems or under the water.
Wildlife or animals
They are the animals that inhabit a certain territory. They are also divided into wild and domesticated depending on the way of life or natives, introduced and invading according to the place where they live.
The animals are classified according to family, class, order, genus, species and other characteristics and are divided into subgroups, each occupying a special place in the food chain of which plants are also part.
The animals are characterized by being multicellular and eukaryotic organisms. Their cells meet in tissues and tissues in organs and systems that fulfill a function in the body.
They are nourished by ingestion or consume food, that is, they are heterotrophs. In turn, they can be carnivores (eat meat), herbivores (eat vegetables), omnivores (eat both).
Its metabolism is aerobic, ie it breathes oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. This also shows that animals and plants depend on one another.
As a rule, they are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrates have an internal skeleton or endoskeleton and are mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles.
Sun and light
The sun is the main star of our Sola System and sunlight is the electromagnetic radiation that comes from the Sun. Sunlight reaches our planet at all times, but due to the motion of the Moon and Earth, light does not Reaches the entire planet. Consequence of this occurs day and night.
Moreover, in places like the poles, sunlight is more scarce because of its position. That is why there is the concept of the night and the polar day. Due to the movement of the earth, there are summer and winter, moments in which sunlight affects a certain territory differently.
Sunlight affects living beings as it allows plants to perform photosynthesis. On the other hand, light plays an important role in the development of animals, some of which live in places with poor visibility where they develop a more acute vision than the human being.
Air is a mixture of gases that forms the Earth's atmosphere around the planet Earth by the action of gravity. Air is essential for life on the planet which combines nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and other substances (1%). In this line, plants clean the air, as they breathe carbon and expel oxygen, while animals breathe oxygen.
In places where there are few trees and lots of pollution, the air is dirty and causes diseases to the animals that breathe it. For example, each year air pollution is measured by international organizations, with air being considered between 0 and 50 when air is clean.
On the other hand, the air concentration is different in places according to their altitude or their level under the sea, that is why not all the animals can live in any ecosystem.
For example, the very high places the amount of oxygen is lower and it is difficult for people and other animals to breathe. At the bottom of the sea, the air concentration is also lower.
It is a substance formed by two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen which is essential for all forms of life.
It is present in the universe in one of its forms: liquid as water, gaseous as vapor or solid as ice. The amount of water in different ecosystems varies and for this reason only some animals, whose eating habits agree with the habitat, will be able to survive.
It is the surface of the earth's crust that comes from the physical and chemical alteration of the rocks and the residues of the living beings that inhabit it.
Soil is formed from many processes, such as wind deposition, sedimentation, weathering, and others. Soil is an inorganic substrate that is enriched with organic material, such as the remains of dead animals.
These remains interact with water, air and sunlight and are also affected by external geological processes. Soils are classified according to their structure and physical characteristics. And in turn there are divisions depending on their fertility or the climatic conditions of the region.
Climate is a weather statistic that is measured by assessing temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, and other meteorological variables in a given region.
The climate of a region is generated by the climate system and consists of five components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, the lithosphere and the biosphere. There are three types of climate: cold, temperate and warm.
Climate plays an important role for the lives of animals. For example, abrupt changes in climate in the ecosystem can cause an animal population to disappear or migrate to another place, thus becoming an invasive population.
The terrestrial relief refers to the forms of the earth's crust or lithosphere on the surface. The terrestrial relief types are: plains (medianplains and plateaus), eminences (hills and mountains) and depressions and basins (marine grave and valley).
It is important to remember that the relief evolves thanks to internal or endogenous geological processes such as volcanic activity, seismic and orogenesis and external or exogenous geological processes such as weathering and denudation of rocks.
The pH measures the acidity or alkalinity. The pH indicates the hydrogen ions present in certain solutions. The quality of the water and the soil depends on the pH they have.
For example, soil pH determines the color of flowers and trees. Water with very high pH causes turbidity and irritation of eyes, ears, nose and throat in humans.