The Types of poems Are classified according to a series of characteristics related to the number of syllables, the type of rhyme or stanzas and the composition.
The poem is defined as a work composed of verses, which seeks to express both the emotions and impressions that have its author of the world. Belongs to poetry, one of the Main literary genres .
Also, this type of poetic composition makes use of language tools such as rhyme, prose or metrics.
In general, the poems are composed of two basic elements: the verses and the verses. Which gives rise to a wide classification of types of poems that we will see next:
Types of main poems
According to the number of syllables in the verses
Of minor art
They are known as verses of art less than those that have eight syllables or less. Depending on the number of syllables they have, they are given a name. They are:
- Bisyllabic : Are those verses that have two syllables. These are often very rare in the literature. However, they were the most used in the era of Romanticism.
- Trisyllabic : Are those verses that have three syllables. Like the verses of two syllables, those of three syllables are rare. They began to be used from the eighteenth century until today.
- Four thousand words : These are verses of four syllables. This type of verse has been used since the Middle Ages alone or combined with other verses that used to be eight.
- Pentasyllables : Are verses of five syllables. Like the four syllables, these have been used since the Middle Ages combined with other types of verses. However, from the fifteenth century they began to be used independently.
- Hexasyllables : Are those verses of six syllables. They have been used since the Middle Ages in popular compositions.
- Heptasyllables : They stand out for being of seven syllables. Its use became popular in Renaissance times. They used to be used in combination with verses of eleven syllables. These verses were also widely used in the eighteenth century.
- Octosyllables : Its verses are of eight syllables and it is the type of verse more popular in the Spanish poems. It has been used since the eleventh century to the present day uninterrupted.
Of major art
Those that have nine or more syllables are known as verses of greater art. Like minor art verses, they are given a name depending on the number of syllables. They are:
- Encyclopedia : These are verses of nine syllables. The poems with verses eneasílabos appeared in choruses of as much of poems as of popular songs in the period that comprised from century XV until century XVII. However, its use increased in later centuries.
- Decaying : Are those verses that have 10 syllables. This type of verses is little used and is done in combination with other types of verses.
- Endecasyllables : Stand out for having 11 syllables. From the sixteenth century the endecasílabos verses became more important and they became one of the most used in the Castilian poetry. It is worth noting that according to the position in which the non-strophic accents are found there are several types of endecasyllabic verses.
- Dodecasyllables : These are verses of 12 syllables. It was widely used both in the fourteenth century and in the fifteenth century. This is a verse that is composed of two hemistiqueos of six plus six syllables, or of seven plus five syllables.
- Tridecasyllables : These are verses of 13 syllables. They have also had little use throughout history.
- Alexandrine : It is called thus the verses of 14 syllables. It was frequently used during the centuries XIII and XIV. But then it was used very little until the nineteenth century, when it was implemented by romantic poets.
- Pentadecasyllables : Are composed of 15 syllables.
- Hexadecasílabos or octonarios : Are the verses of 16 syllables
- Hepthe-syllables : These are verses of 17 syllables.
- OctoDecasyllables : Are those verses that have 18 syllables.
- Eneadecasílabos : Contain 19 syllables.
According to the type of rhyme
The rhyme is one of the tools of the language that is used in the poems. It is a resemblance of final sounds that have the verses. The rhymes can be of two types, distinguishing two types of poems:
Poems with rhyme consonant
A poem is considered consonant when its last syllable has similarity of pronunciation or intonation with the first syllable. Basically it is established between verses whose ends are equal and include both vowels and consonants.
Poems with assonant rhyme
A poem is assonant when in the prayers of this only the vowels rhyme. In this case the rhyme is only established in the vowels that are accentuated in the last tonic syllable located at the end of each line. This type of poem is also called"imperfect"or"partial".
According to the type of stanzas
- Semi-detached : These are verses that can be of smaller or greater art. And they can be either consonant or assonant rhyme.
- Terceto : These are three verses of major art with rhyme consonant.
- Third : Also refers to three verses with rhyme consonant but of minor art.
- Soleá : Is constituted with verses of minor art but with astonishing rhyme.
Of four verses
- Quartet : These are four verses of major art with rhyme consonant.
- Redondilla : In this case are four verses of minor art, but also · with rhyme consonant.
- Servantsio : These are also four major art verses with rhyme consonant.
- Quatrain : Are four verses of minor art with rhyme consonant.
- Couplet : These are four octosyllabic verses with rhyme consonant.
- Bookcase via : Are four verses alejandrinos with rhyme consonant.
Of five verses
- Quintet : These are five verses of major art with rhyme consonant. In this case there are no more than two consecutive verses with the same rhyme and no verse without rhyme.
- Limerick : Are five verses of minor art with rhyme consonant and variable scheme.
- Lira : These are two endecasílabos verses with three verses heptasílabos. They are rhyming consonant
Of six verses
- Broken foot or French couplet : These are verses of minor art with rhyme consonant
Of eight verses
- Octave real : These are eight verses of major art with rhyme consonant.
- Pamphlet : In this case are eight verses of minor art with rhyme consonant and variable scheme.
Of ten verses
- Tenth or spinel : These are verses of minor art with rhyme consonant.
According to its composition
Sonnets are poetic compositions consisting of fourteen verses, which are consonant endecasyllables.
The sonnet arrived in Spain in the 15th century and became one of the most influential lyric genres in the history of Hispanic literature. Since it began to be used has adopted other combinations and variations such as the sonnet or the sonnet with brambles, among others.
This is a composition that is composed of an indeterminate number of octosyllabic verses.
In this case, the odd rhyme is free and the pairs are rhyming assonant. These types of poems are of anonymous popular origin and the oldest admitted the mixture of assonance and consonance.
It is a poetic composition of Hispanic Arabic origin. It consists of an initial chorus composed of two or three verses.
It also has a variable number of stanzas, which are formed by three monorrimos verses and a last verse, which is the turn. This rhyme with the refrain. This combination to sing appeared in Muslim Spain.
The carols are a composition similar to the zégel. Throughout the years this composition has been denominated like a song of religious and Christmas character.
It is composed by an initial chorus, as well as by moving and verse back. In this case all the verses are octosyllabic or heptasílabos and are chained of the following form.
First comes a chorus of three or four verses, then a foot that consists of moving and then two or three link verses that are rhyming with the chorus.
It is an unlimited series of verses that can be heptasyllabic and endecasílabos consonants.
These are usually rhymed to the liking of the poet. In this composition may appear loose verses. A condition for this type of series is that the rhymes should not be very separate. The silva is of Italian origin and began to be used in Spanish poetry in the sixteenth century.
It is a poem that has a very complex structure. This can vary depending on factors like the poet and the time in which it is created. It is a combination in verse verses heptasílabos and endecasílabos.
In this case the rhymes can be assonant or consonant. The song is also a composition of origin is Italian. But this came to Spanish poetry during the Renaissance.
The madrigal is a brief poetic composition, but with a great harmony and simplicity. It's basically a short love song. It can be three to six voices and it combines verses of type heptasílabos and endecasílabos with rhyme consonant.
It is known with the name of letrilla to all the poems with refrain. It appeared during the call Century of Gold and its main peculiarity was its burlesque or satirical tone. These are verses of minor art with rhyme consonant and with a structure very similar to the one of carol.
When speaking of free verse refers to poems that do not have any fixed metric scheme. This type of poems is based on a different rhythm that may include arrangement of words, syntactic structure, among other things. The free verses were the basic poetry of the twentieth century.
This is a poem of Japanese origin that was widely used in the twentieth century. This type of composition consists of 3 verses of 5, 7 and 5 syllables.
In the haiku is expressed, in addition to the feeling of love, other expressions that evoke love as much as the divinities and nature. This type of poem usually interrelates in rhyme between its verses and verses.
It is a type of composition in verse that is characterized by a tone of praise, admiration and exaltation. These types of poems are generally used to extol a character or an idea. Unlike most compositions, it has an indeterminate number of verses.
It is a brief poetic composition that is characterized by only two verses. It usually conveys a feeling of rejoicing and joy, as well as of joy and in some cases even has a touch of satire and mockery.
It is a type of special poem that does not have a fixed metric form. It is responsible for transmitting feelings of abandonment, anguish, despair and sadness.
This is a type of poem in which his verses relate to nature, in addition to allusion and comparison with the love of two people. On the other hand, it can be defined as a poetic composition dedicated to idealizing the life of pastors and the countryside
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- Harlan, C. (2016). Sonnet. Meaning of sonnet and examples. Retrieved from literature.about.com.
- Theory of poetry. Phonetic and phonological fundamentals of metrics. (without date). Retrieved from cnusd.k12.ca.us.
- [Links] All types of poems and their structural characteristics. Retrieved from es.scribd.com.