The Types of english Spoken and written are American, British, Australian, Canadian, South African, New Zealander, Indian and Caribbean.
John C. Wells said in his book Accents of English That language is not a homogeneous entity. This is evidenced when it is observed that the languages are but the compendium of the multiple varieties that they possess.
And in the case of English, it is the result of the colonial expansion of Great Britain, just as Spanish was the result of the colonial expansion of Spain in the past centuries.
Today, English is the most widely spoken language in the world. But those who study it as a second language learn what is known as standard English. This is the dialect that is used to write and is the one that usually use the people who belong to the highest social classes.
But, in addition to this variety, there are other types of English. Languages are not static. That is, they evolve over time and are influenced by historical, social or generational changes.
Therefore, all languages have internal varieties and these differences depend on their place of origin. In the case of English, there are eight main types of English currently used around the world: American, British, Australian, Canadian, South African, New Zealander, Indian and Caribbean.
The most talked about types of English in the world
This is the most well-known dialect in the world and therefore the most used. The reason that this is the most widespread is due to the entertainment industry. And it has been by this massive disclosure that American English has made other dialect varieties invisible. This type of English is the standard form of the language used in the United States.
As with English in general, there is not only one American English but there are dialect varieties. These are classified into three major groups: the English of the North, the English of the Center and the South. Each one presents differences not only in vocabulary but also in terms of syntax, morphology and pronunciation. But, despite their differences, American English is more homogeneous than the British.
This variety is on par with American English when it comes to comparisons. And this English is derived from the Anglo-Saxon, also called Old English. This was an early form of the language that used to be spoken between the years of 425 and 1125 in the territories that today make up England and the south of Scotland.
Among the distinctive features of British English is the elimination of the phoneme / r / at the end of the word. Unlike American English, where the language is curved by uttering the sound r at the end of the words, in the British the speakers do not pronounce it and instead pronounce a schwa / ǝ /.
This type of English also presents its internal variations. Thus distinguish various accents: 'London English', 'Southern English', 'Northern English' and the Scottish Standard Scottish English and Scottish Gaelic.
This is the standard form of English used in Australia. This variety differs from other variants of English, especially for its accent and vocabulary. The distinctive features of this dialect were established around 1830.
Australian English is characterized because it still retains the use of certain indigenous words to name animals, plants and some places of the continent. With respect to its internal varieties, three classes are distinguished: 'Broad', 'General' and 'Cultivated Australian'.
Because of its geographic proximity, Canadian English is often confused with American. This is also because the variety of English spoken in Canada is a mixture of idioms of American English and British English. But they are not the only ones who have had an influence on Canadian English.
And it is that this English was created after a series of migratory waves that occurred during two centuries. This is then a combination of English from England, United States, French and Aboriginal words. This variety is characterized precisely by this mixture. It confuses some words that put the emphasis on the first syllable with others that have a francophone origin.
South African English
South African English was born with the arrival of the British to the country in 1795. This variety presents many peculiar characteristics, so much so that for some times they can become difficult to understand. It has similarities with British English, especially with regard to vocabulary. However, as in all others, there are various types of pronunciations.
South African English has had two particular influences: the Dutch, and the Afrikaans, which is a local language. In fact, many words that are now part of this variety of English have been taken from the different African languages like the Zulu, the Ndebele, among others.
New Zealander English
This is the type of English spoken in New Zealand and because of its proximity, it is very similar to the one spoken in Australia.
And the greatest similarity they present is as far as their pronunciation is concerned. However, in this case the influence is not indigenous but Irish and Scottish immigrants who arrived in the country in the nineteenth century.
This is the standard form of English used in India. However, even if one speaks of standard English, it really is not. And is that in the country are used different regional variants of this language, either for social or geographical reasons.
On the other hand, Indian English has been strongly influenced by Hindi, the other official language of the country. At least 30 million people speak English in India, making it the third country in the world with more English speakers.
This is the name given to the type of English spoken in the Caribbean region. But although the dialect is denominated like this, each country counts on its variations. Even so, all have a common denominator, which is the fact that each one started with English and that its origins are African.
Jamaican English, for example, presents a grammatical similarity to British English. However, because of the proximity to the United States, American English has been influencing the type of English spoken in the Caribbean region.
- Pizarro-Chacón, G. (2015). Multi Dialectic: A challenge for the teaching of a second language. Educare electronic magazine. Costa Rica. Web: www.scielo.sa.cr.
- Pérez, A. (No date). The integration of varieties of English in programming: a case study. University of Huelva. Spain. Web: es.scribd.com.