The General components of a machine they are the power source, the motor, the mechanism, the frame, the regulation and control system and the safety components.
They are the basic and standardized mechanical parts, which are used as building blocks in most machines, which usually have common sizes and are manufactured in series.
The machines are composed of three types of elements: the structural components, the movement control mechanisms and the control components themselves.
Although the shape, color and texture are not considered elements of a machine, however, they are an important part of it, because it offers a practical interface and design.
What is a machine?
It is a set of fixed and mobile assembled elements that allow transforming, regulating, directing or simply taking advantage of energy. Machines perform tasks and functions autonomously or automatically when manipulated by an operator.
A machine is constituted by a series of components or simple and common elements for almost all, and that are essential so that they work and fulfill the tasks for which they were created by man.
General components of a machine
A machine is composed of the following basic elements:
It is the form of basic energy or fuel that allows to start the machine. It can be electricity, oil, gasoline, alcohol, etc.
It is the mechanism that performs a certain work by transforming the source of energy that feeds it or serves as a combustion.
The motors themselves are transforming machines of other types of energy (kinetic, chemical, electrical) in mechanical energy. This is possible when rotating on an axis or moving a piston alternatively.
Motors that transform mechanical energy into kinetics are called transformers. Compressors and pumps also fall into this category.
Mechanism or transmission
This other component, comprises a series of mechanical elements that when grouped form a system, whose function is to transform the energy provided by the motor in the movement or final action sought with the machine.
This function is fulfilled when transmitting the power between one or more elements of the machine. The mechanism transforms speed, force, trajectory and energy into other types of each of them.
According to the number of elements, the mechanisms can be classified as:
- Simple: those that have 2 link elements.
- Complexes: if they have more than 2 link elements
It includes a rigid structure that supports the motor and the mechanism. Its function is to guarantee the link or coupling of all the elements of the machine.
In the design of the frame several aspects must be taken into account for safety reasons.
First, each of the components of the machine, then the analysis of effort and deformation to, from there, design the best possible structure according to design needs.
Regulation and control system
These are the control components used to regulate the operation and strength of the machine, coupling it to the required work.
These are the switches, the buttons, the indicators, the sensors, the actuators and the controllers
They are fundamental to guarantee the operation without risk of the machine. Although they do not help the work that is done and serve to protect the workers.
These components are part of the industrial and labor security currently mandatory. Its periodic maintenance is essential to ensure its proper functioning.
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