There are ** Famous mathematicians ** Which have stood out throughout Of history for its achievements and contributions to this formal science.

Some mathematicians have had a great passion for numbers making discoveries regarding equations, measurements, and other numerical solutions that have changed the course of history.

They sought ways to understand the world in terms of numbers and their contributions have been very important for their generations and beyond.

** Top 31 Mathematicians in History **

** 1- Albert Einstein (1879-1955) **

- Nationality: German, American
- Famous for: E = m * c²

Albert Einstein excelled in mathematics from his childhood. He liked to study math on his own. He once said,"I never failed in mathematics, before I turned fifteen I had already mastered differential integral calculus."

He also said:"Mathematical propositions, as far as they have to do with reality, are not true; And as long as they are true, they have nothing to do with reality."

Discoveries:

- The Brownian movement
- The photoelectric effect
- Special Relativity
- The mass-energy equivalence
- General relativity

** 2- Isaac Newton (1642-1727) **

- English nationality
- Famous for: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

The book of Sir Isaac Newton, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, became the catalyst for the understanding of mechanics. He is also the person accredited for the development of the binomial theorem.

Discoveries:

- The centripetal force
- The decomposition of light in colors
- Universal gravitation
- Kepler's Laws
- The corpuscular hypothesis of light
- Newtonian mechanics
- The optics
- The laws of motion

** 3- Leonardo Pisano Bigollo (1170-1250) **

- Nationality: Italian
- Famous for: The Fibonacci sequence

Leonardo Pisano, better known as Fibonacci, was considered"the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages". He introduced the Arab-Hindu system of numbers into the Western world. In his book, * Liber Abaci * (Book of Calculus), included a sequence of numbers now known as"Fibonacci numbers."

** 4- Tales of Miletus (624 BC - 547/546 BC) **

- Nationality: Greek
- Famous for: He is the father of physics and is famous for his theorem

He used the principles of mathematics, specifically geometry, to solve everyday problems. He is considered as the"first true mathematician." His principles of deductive reasoning are applied in geometry. The Tales theorem is used to divide a segment into several equal parts.

** 5- Pythagoras (570 BC - 495 BC) **

- Nationality: Greek
- Famous for: Pythagorean theorem, irrational numbers, regular solids

The Pythagorean theorem says that in a right triangle:"the sum of the squares of the legs is equal to the square of the hypotenuse." Pythagoras also devised the"Tetraktys", a triangular figure composed of ten points arranged in four rows.

** 6- René Descartes (1596-1650) **

- Nationality: French
- Famous for: Cartesian coordinate system and for the systematization of analytical geometry

The"Cartesian coordinate system"in mathematics is named after René Descartes. As a mathematician, he is seen as the father of analytical geometry, and explained the infinitesimal calculus. He also invented the method of exponents.

** 7- Archimedes (287 BC -212 BC) **

- Nationality: Greek
- Famous for: He was the greatest mathematician of antiquity

Archimedes provided principles and methods used in mathematics today. They included the exact numerical value of pi, the development of a system for expressing large numbers and the method of exhaustion.

He invented the Law of Leverage, which states that two weights are in equilibrium when they are at distances inversely proportional to their weights. He enunciated the principle of the lever:"Give me a foothold and I will move the Earth."

Archimedes' Principle: Every body submerged in a fluid experiences a vertical and upward thrust equal to the weight of fluid dislodged.

** 8- John Forbes Nash, Jr. (1928-2015) **

- American nationality
- Famous for: Nash Inlay Theorem

Economist, Nobel Prize in economics in 1994 for his contributions to game theory and negotiation processes.

The work of the American mathematician John Nash includes studies in differential geometry, game theory and partial differential equations. It is better known by the Nash Inlay Theorem. His work in algebraic geometry is also considered a milestone in mathematics.

** 9- Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) **

- Nationality: French
- Famous for: Pascal's Triangle

Pascal is recognized by two mathematical areas of study, projective geometry and probability theory. Blaise Pascal invented the first calculator. He checked that the atmospheric pressure decreases as the height increases.

Pascal triangle: triangular arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle.

** 10- Euclid (365 BC-275 BC) **

- Nationality: Greek
- Famous for: He is the father of geometry. His most famous work"Elements"

The earliest known"books of mathematics"are one written by the Greek mathematician Euclid. It serves as a textbook to teach geometry and math. Its mathematical system is known as"Euclidean geometry". With regard to mathematics, Euclid said:"In mathematics there are no real paths."

The five principles of Euclid:

- You can draw a straight line through two points.
- A straight line can be extended indefinitely from a finite line.
- You can draw a circle with given center and radius.
- All right angles are equal.
- If a straight line intersecting two other straight lines forms the same side with inner angles whose sum is less than two straight, the last two straight lines, indefinitely, intersect on the side where the sum of the angles is less than two straight lines.

** eleven- Aryabhata (476-550) **

- Nationality: India

Famous for Āryabhaṭīya and Arya-siddhanta Scripture. It is also known by resolution of the second degree equation. Some consider him as the father of decimal numbering.

The contribution of the Indian mathematician Aryabhatta includes his work in providing an approximate value of pi. He also touched on the concepts of sine, cosine, and the system of place values. He also stated that the stars are fixed and the Earth rotates.

** 12- Ptolomeo (90-168) **

- Nationality: Greco-Roman

Famous for: * Almagest * Or mathematical compilation, a treatise of 13 books explaining the movement of the Sun, the Moon and the planets. His model of the Universe is based on the idea that the Earth was motionless and was the center of the Universe, and that the Sun, Moon, planets and stars revolved around it.

** 13- Ada Lovelace (1815-1852) **

- British nationality
- Famous for: Work on the analytical engine

Ada Lovelace is recognized as the first computer programmer in the world. His math skills were evident at an early age. As part of her work, she produced a mathematical algorithm that would later be used in computers.

She thought that"imagination is the faculty of discovery, preeminently. It is what penetrates the worlds never seen around us, the worlds of science." The first programming language was named ADA in honor of it.

** 14- Alan Turing (1912-1954) **

- Nationality: British
- Famous for: He is the father of computer science and modern computing

Turing's fame as a mathematician can be attributed to his formulation of algorithms and calculations for a computer, the Turing machine.

His mathematical knowledge helped the device's techniques in code breaking, specifically in World War II.

In 1948 Turing became interested in mathematical biology. He cracked the Nazi"unbreakable"code called Enigma and thanks to him, it can be said that the Nazis lost World War II.

** fifteen- Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920) **

- Nationality: India
- Famous for: Constant Landau-Ramanujan

Theorems and discoveries:

- Property of highly compound numbers
- Ramanujan theta function
- Partition functions and their asymptotic

Ramanujan was a genius in mathematics. He helped extend mathematical theory, particularly in continuous fractions, infinite series, mathematical analysis, and number theory. He performed mathematical research in isolation.

** 16- Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806) **

- Nationality: American
- Famous for: Calculating a solar eclipse

Benjamin Banneker was an autodidact mathematician. He used his math skills to predict an eclipse and the seventeen-year lobster cycle.

** 17- Omar Khayyam (1048 - 1131) **

- Nationality: Persian
- Famous for: Treatise on the demonstration of algebra problems. He studied the cubic equations and solved some of them

Omar Khayyam wrote one of the most important books in mathematics, the Treatise on the Demonstration of Algebra Problems. In the area of geometry, Khayyam worked on the"theory of proportions".

** 18- Eratosthenes (276 BC - 194 BC) **

- Nationality: Greek
- Famous for: The Platonicus, the Sieve of Eratosthenes. He was the first to calculate the radius of the Earth

Eratosthenes provided the concept of a simple algorithm as a way of locating prime numbers. The Eratosthenes sieve has been used to find the prime numbers.

** 19- John von Neumann (1903-1957) **

- Nationality: Hungarian
- Famous for: Operator theory and quantum mechanics

The mathematical evaluation of self-replication by John von Neumann came before the DNA model was introduced. Other mathematical topics he addressed include"mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics","game theory", mathematics and mathematical economics. His contribution to the study of"operator theory"is an extremely important contribution.

** twenty- Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) **

- Nationality: French
- Famous for: Fermat's Last Theorem

As an amateur mathematician, Fermat is given recognition for his work that has led to infinitesimal calculus. He applied the use of"adequacy"to explain his mathematical constructs. He also contributed to the mathematical fields of analytical geometry, differential calculus, and number theory.

** twenty-one- John Napier (1550-1617) **

- Nationality: Scottish
- Famous for: His contributions in applied mathematics consist of methods that helped to simplify the numerical calculation used in applied mathematics. He also developed logarithms

John Napier is responsible for the manufacture of logarithms. He was also the one who applied the daily use of the decimal point in mathematics and arithmetic. There is a unit of mathematical measurement relative to the area of telecommunications that was dedicated to him: The neper or neperio.

** 22- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) **

- Nationality: German
- Famous for: The infinitesimal calculus

Leibniz's work in infinitesimal calculus was completely separated from the study of Isaac Newton. His mathematical notation is still in use.

He also proposed the mathematical principle known as the Transcendental Law of Homogeneity. His refinement of the binary system has become a foundation in mathematics.

** 2. 3- Andrew Wiles (1953) **

- Nationality: British
- Famous for: Test Fermat's Last Theorem

Andrew Wiles succeeded in demonstrating the"last Fermat theorem". He also used the"Iwasawa theory"to identify elliptic curves using his complex multiplication system. Wiles, with a colleague, worked on rational numbers under the"Iwasawa theory".

** 24- David Hilbert (1862-1943) **

- Nationality: German
- Famous for: Hilbert's Theorem

In cumulative algebra, the use of the"Hilbert base theory"has produced variable results. David Hilbert explored and improved ideas such as"axiomatization of geometry"and"invariant theory". Functional analysis, a branch of mathematical analysis, is based on the formulation of the"theory of Hilbert spaces".

** 25- Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) **

- Swiss nationality
- Famous for: Bernoulli's Principle or Dynamic Fluid Theory

* Hydrodynamics * Of Daniel Bernoulli was a book that addressed the mathematical principles applied in other sciences. It also provides the theoretical explanation of the gas pressure in the walls of a container:

"Throughout all fluid current the total energy per unit mass is constant, consisting of the sum of the pressure, the kinetic energy per unit volume and the potential energy equally per unit volume."

** 26- Luca Pacioli (1445-1517) **

- Nationality: Italian
- Famous for: He is known as the father of accounting. He was also a pioneer in the calculation of probabilities.

The fifteenth-century friar and mathematician Luca Pacioli developed accounting or accounting methods that are still used today. Because of this, Pacioli is seen by many as the"father of accounting".

Fundamental principles:

- There is no debtor without creditor.
- The amount owed to one or more accounts must be equal to what is paid.
- All who receive must to the person who gives or surrenders.
- All values you enter are debtors and any value that comes out is a creditor
- All losses are debtors and any winnings.

** 27- Georg Cantor (1845-1918) **

- Nationality: German
- Famous for: Inventor of Set Theory

One of the basic theories in mathematics is set theory, thanks to the work of Georg Cantor. It helped to define the importance of the principle of"one-to-one correspondence", as well as to introduce cardinal and ordinal numbers.

** 28- George Boole (1815-1864) **

- English nationality
- Famous for: Boolean Algebra

George Boole and his ideas on mathematics were in the field of algebraic logic and differential equations. He is the source of what is known as"Boolean logic"in algebra. This and other mathematical concepts are part of his book"The Laws of Thought".

** 29- Sophie Germain (1776-1831) **

- Nationality: French
- Famous for: The prime numbers of Sophie Germain and studies of mathematical physics with an investigation about the theory of the elasticity.

Sophie Germain worked extensively in the mathematical field of numerical theory and differential geometry.

** 30- Emmy Noether (1882-1935) **

- German nationality
- Famous for: Abstract Algebra

Emmy Noether and her work on abstract algebra make it one of the most important mathematics of her time. He introduced theories on algebraic variants and numerical fields. In the article by * Noether, Theory of ideals in ring domains * , Presented his ideas on the"commutative ring", a sub-area of abstract algebra.

** 31- Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) **

- German nationality
- Famous for: Gaussian function

"The Prince of Mathematicians"is known for his Number Theory, the Gaussian function or his contribution to mathematical analysis or algebra. The last one appears on the list, but he is possibly the most important mathematician in history.

** References **

- Sexton, M. (2010). Top 10 Greatest Mathematicians. 17-1-2017, of ListVerse.
- Page 2 Marie-Sophie Germain: Mathematics as a strategy of life. 17-1-2017, from Universidad Veracruzana.
- Allen, J. (1999). Hundred Greatest Mathematicians of the Past. 17-1-2017, from"Fabulous"Pedigree.
- The famous people. (2016). Mathematicians. 17-1-2017, by Famous People.
- Famous Mathematicians ORG. (2013). Famous Mathematicians. 17-1-2017, of famous-mathematicians.org.