The Toltec gods And the mythology that surrounds them, are intrinsic part of this Mesoamerican town that had its moment of apogee when they settled down in the Mexican plateau between centuries X and XII, long before the arrival the first settlers to America.
According to historical records, despite being a nomadic culture began a pilgrimage from the north of more than a century in the year 511 until they found the city of Tula, which lasted 348 years until the arrival of the Aztecs.
There they established themselves, created cities, developed their culture and formed a belief system with an influence that extended to Zacatecas and Yucatan.
Their language was Nahuatl, the form of government was a monarchy and left an important artistic, cultural, architectural and mythological legacy in the cultures that survived them.
Tolteca means"Dweller of Tula", in reference to that after a long pilgrimage anchored its residence in the center of Mexico, but over the years that name was also used to call the artisans.
Its economy was based on agriculture, mainly maize and beans, and society was organized into two groups: the privileged, among them the hierarchs, the military, the officials, the supreme ruler and the priests; And the servants, the workers, and the craftsmen.
Like all the pre-Columbian towns they had a strong mythological imprint, with a nourished pantheon of gods and a gross system of beliefs. His religion was shamanic and had no permanent place of worship.
Worshipers of the forces of nature like the sky, the water and the earth, their system of beliefs was dualistic. The two supreme principles were Quetzalcoatl (beautiful serpent, represents good) and Tezcatlipoca (black mirror, figure of evil).
Like so many other pre-Columbian cultures, the Toltecs also made human sacrifices, as a form of communion and services to the gods. However, they conceived the divinity in a way different from other civilizations, they believed that the Supreme Being has a double condition: it creates the world but also destroys it.
The Toltecs worshiped and adopted all the gods of those who heard, so they had more than 400 gods, many of them shared with other cultures. Here we repair the 30 outstanding figures of his pantheon.
30 of the most important Toltec gods
The main god of the Toltec civilization, shared with the Mayans, the Aztecs and other peoples, represents the god of life, light, wisdom, fertility and knowledge.
It was considered as the pattern of the day and of the winds, residing in the west and was considered"beautiful or feathered serpent", in reference to its physical and spiritual body, respectively.
In the legend of the five soles, Quetzalcoatl was the one who gave birth to the fifth Sun (in which we live now) and thus together with Xolotl created humanity. That is why he is considered as the main god.
Its name is that of"feathered serpent,"because it is a material physical body, according to the serpent conception in these cultures, and it is also spirit, which is what feathers represent.
It is called the duality of Quetzalcoatl, in its destructive function. He was the god of night and destiny, lord of heaven and earth, also a source of life and shelter of man.
Among other characteristics, it stands out to be a black or smoky mirror, with he could see everything and annihilate his enemies. He was a sorcerer, a diviner, and an expert in black magic.
God of the rain and the waters. He is one of the oldest and venerated deities in Mesoamerica, his name translated as the"nectar of the earth"and he was the one who worshiped during the first month of the year to guarantee a rainy season, The crops.
Considered in the Toltec pantheon as the goddess of living water and fresh water currents. Her name meant"Owner of the green skirt", where the cause of the rivers arose. She was the wife of Tlaloc.
It could be considered as a duality of Matlalcueye, although it is not registered in all cultures in the same way. She was the goddess of fertility, mistress of salt and salt water.
Their worship was with human sacrifices in all the women sang and danced around the victim dressed as a goddess.
Goddess of beauty, flowers, love, loving pleasure and the arts. It was venerated with flowers of cempasúchil to obtain its grace. She was also the wife of Tlaloc.
One of the gods shared with other cultures, he is the god who provides food, represents the first man and his wife. For the Aztecs he was considered the first sea monster.
Considered as the first woman, Toltec culture was the goddess of the protégone of sustenance, stealth, inert and inherent.
Patron of the hunters, also it is known under the name of Camaxtli. Before leaving hunting, the Toltecs were entrusted to him in search of the fortune and the necessary value.
10- Xipe Tótec
God of the gold workers. He was regarded as a bloodthirsty almighty who demanded human sacrifice to ensure prosperity every year.
God of freedom, he was as fast as the wind and could go through matter. He was depicted with blue wings.
One of the dark gods of the Toltec pantheon was considered the god of cold, ice, winter, punishment, sin, human misery, disasters and obsidian, a black stone.
Tribute was paid to him as lord of the sacrifices and knives. He fought with the sun that is why it is related to the low temperatures and frost.
He is the god of the wind and one of the first divinities of the mystical culture of Mesoamerican towns. These civilizations recognized the importance of the four elements: air, earth, fire and water, which served as regents of their beliefs.
The wind was linked with storms, humidity, life and the regeneration of plants. It was represented with a red beak, with which cleared the way to Tlaloc, the god of the rain.
God of the sunset, the spirits, the fire of wisdom and bad luck. He was the lord of the evening star and the underworld, which leads to the Sun as it passes through it.
Prince of Flowers, Lord of the Morning Sun, is considered as a festive god, regent of music, spring, dance, musical instruments and vegetation.
It is related to love, entertainment and chance. His cult was one of the most important of the Mesoamerican pantheons.
Goddess of the stars, lady of the Milky Way, her name means"the lack of stars". Each culture has different legends about their husbands and real names.
He is the god of the male stars, he is associated with Citlallicue, with whom they would have created the Milky Way. His name in Nahuatl means"bright star."
God of duality, considered as the creator god of the universe, of men and also supreme god of all that exists. His name means"god of two." He had as sons four gods, which are located at each cardinal point.
Another of the divinities shared by different cultures, is considered the god of death and the underworld, companion of souls by the shadows and lord who gives and foster life. He was feared for his character.
The"old coyote"was the god of dance, the arts and plumery, for the Toltecs represented the properties of the beasts: ferocity, courage, struggle, which they considered fundamental elements for war.
As he says his name is"the lord of the grass,"he is considered as the god of fire and heat. In different Mesoamerican cultures, this representation was different.
His name translates to"obsidian butterfly"and for the Toltecs he represents a central deity of his belief system. She was the goddess of sacrifices and war.
He had knives in his wings and his figure represented rebirth and regeneration. Those who were born under his day were assured of a long life.
This god is associated with the vital energy of the dawn, since its name represents"the star of the dawn". He is another of the divinities shared by several cultures, in which he was worshiped associated with Venus.
During the Toltec civilization, a huge temple was built in Tula, which still stands.
This deity was also shared with other civilizations, like the goddess of the Moon. Its name means"face of the serpent,"which was related to its dominions over storms, floods or the joy that water could bring to life.
Her name is the focus of discussions, but her worship is always associated with health care and the maintenance of life, which is why she is considered goddess of doctors, midwives and surgeons.
"Woman serpent", according to its translation is considered the goddess of the birth. His veneration among Mesoamerican cultures is associated with medicine, health, abortions and the wounded.
Another of the shared divinities, goddess of drought, her name means sad water, represents austerity and hopelessness. It is feared for being the fertile devourer.
It was also for the Toltecs the god of medicine, dances, festivals and games. He was worshiped for his healing domains.
In Tula's civilization he was the god of war, as in others. "Southern hummingbird or left hummingbird", was the representation of his name and is associated as regidor of the Sun.
In Nahuatl its name is conformed by the words that represent the lord of the sustenance. He is considered as one of the creator gods of the whole.
This deity is common to all Mesoamerican culture, with different venerations, but with equal importance for being one of the central deities.
He is the god of creation and fertility, lord of nature, was the source of daily sustenance. She was a kind and brotherly deity, who dominated food.
According to the legends, it was Tonacatecuhtli who blew and divided the waters of heaven and earth, which after creation were together. That is why it is considered as the being of the center.