Compilation of the 22 Most famous biologists And important of all time, along with their most emblematic contributions to the world of science.
The work of a biologist involves the study of living organisms and their relation to nature. They seek to understand the mechanisms of living beings by studying their origin, habits and genetic structure.
The field of biology has produced important discoveries over the centuries: from vaccines to theories about the origin of life on our planet. Marvelous discoveries that have improved not only our knowledge of nature but the quality of our lives.
The history of biology and its protagonists originates in ancient Greece and goes back to our time. Curiosity framed by scientific rigor has been a key element in the successful work of scientists from eras and very diverse places.
You may also be interested in The 50 most famous scientists in history .
Top 22 best-known biologists of all time
(460-370 BC). Greek scientist, known as the father of Western medicine, wrote About the doctor , A guide that indicated how a doctor should treat his patients. It also gave rise to the Hippocratic oath, which doctors use to this day as part of their practice.
(384-322 BC). In ancient Greece, this scientific Was the first to categorize animal life based on its characteristics. He proposed two groups, the"animals with blood"and the"animals without blood"as part of what he called the Natural Scale. Many of his theories remained in force until the 19th century.
(1514-1564) Known as the modern father of human anatomy, Vesalius dismissed several ancient theories about the human body. His analysis of the human skull was the basis of biological anthropology, which studies the evolution of the human species over time.
4- Anton van Leeuwenhoek
(1632-1723) Dutch biologist, considered the father of microbiology, was the first scientist to speak of unicellular organisms. Among the organisms you observed are the blood cells. He built the microscopes he used in his studies.
(1635-1703) Born in England, Hooke coined the term cell. He studied microscopic fossils, which allowed him to promote the theory of biological evolution. He was a successful author, with the publication of his book Micrographia In the year 1665, which included illustrations of microscopic images, such as the eye of a fly.
(1733-1804) This English biologist was considered to be one of the discoverers of oxygen. It is also attributed the invention of carbonated water, by means of the dissolution of heavy gas in water. This discovery earned him the Royal Society medal in 1733. He was also the first biologist to document photosynthesis.
7- Antoine Lavoisier
(1743-1794) Best known in the field of biology for his work on metabolism, this French scientist experimented by placing a calorimeter on a guinea pig to measure its heat output. He carried out further experiments on combustion.
8- Edward Jenner
(1749-1823) Born in England, Jenner developed the first experimental vaccine to prevent smallpox. He was the one who proposed the term vaccine and is therefore known as the father of immunology.
9- Alexander Von Humboldt
(1769-1859) Founder of the field of biogeography, the study of ecosystems and species through geographic and temporal spaces. In his honor was called humboldtian science to the belief that the most modern and precise resources must be used when collecting data during the experimentation.
10- Robert Brown
(1773-1858) Scottish botanist who analyzed about 2,000 species of plants. He discovered the Brownian motion, which occurred when he placed pollen grains in a bowl of water and noticed that they moved without any kind of observable stimulus.
11- Charles Darwin
(1809-1882) Known for his Theory of Evolution of Species, this biologist English concluded that all living species come from common ancestors that evolved over millions of years. He called this process of evolution natural selection. He published his theories in a book called On the Origin of Species .
12- Claude Bernard
(1813-1878) This French biologist proposed conducting blind experiments to conduct studies and helped the scientists of his time to obtain more objective results. Bernard also performed studies on the pancreas, liver, and Human nervous system .
13- Gregor Mendel
(1822-1884) Scientist of German origin, Mendel worked with plants, peas and bees to test their theories on genetics. He is considered the founder of genetic science and the discoverer of different laws on genetic patterns, now known as Mendelian heritage.
14- Luis Pasteur
(1822-1895) The process of pasteurisation used in milk and some other beverages owes its name to this French-born biologist. He performed experiments that helped prove the disease theory, which proposed that diseases are caused by microorganisms. He was founder of microbiology field and creator of vaccines against anthrax and rabies.
15- Joseph Lister
(1827-1912) As a professor of surgery, English introduced the idea of sterilizing instruments using carbolic acid to prevent infection. He was known as the father of antisepsis thanks to his discoveries. Improved techniques for performing mastectomies and knee surgeries.
16- Thomas Hunt Morgan
(1866-1945) Genetist of American origin, unraveled the connection between miosis and genetic segregation. His discoveries about genes and their location on chromosomes helped make biology an experimental science. He won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1933.
17- Alexander Fleming
(1881-1955) An outstanding Scottish biologist and pharmacologist who contributed to the development of antibiotic medicines through his discovery of penicillin from mold Penicillium Notatum . Fleming's work brought new hope to mankind to tackle different diseases and treat bacterial infections. He received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1945.
18- Ernst Mayr
(1904-2005) Known as the twentieth-century Darwin, this German scientist tried to solve the problem of species raised by Darwin through the publication of Systematics and the Origin of Species . Mayr sought to abound in his ideas about evolutionary biology. His work and his discoveries were a great influence for the formulation of later theories, such as the theory of punctuated equilibrium.
19- Erwin Chargaff
(1905-2002): this Austrian biologist is known mainly for his discovery of two rules related to the structure of DNA and its formation in the form of double helix. He found that some substances within the structure of DNA are comparable to other substances. He also discovered that DNA composition varies among species .
20- Rachel Carson
(1907-1964) Marine biologist born in the United States who worked to warn the public about the danger of pesticide use. His work helped set up the Environmental Protection Agency. He published several volumes about marine life at the beginning of his career. He later devoted himself to helping to change government policies on the use of some pesticides.
21- George Beadle
(1909-1975) American geneticist who showed, by means of the radiation of mold spores Neurospora crassa And monitoring of the resulting mutations, that mutations induced in the genes corresponded to alterations in specific enzymes. This discovery helped to accept the hypothesis of a gene / an enzyme. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1958.
22- Frances Oldham Kelsey
(1914-) American scientist, member of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration in the United States). His work prevented the commercialization of Thalidomide in the United States, saving the lives of thousands of children. He led the movement that resulted in stricter regulation of drug distribution.