Some of the Writers of the Golden Age Most important have been Alonso de Ledesma, Antonio Hurtado, Baltasar Gracián, Bartolomé de las Casas, Fernando de Rojas, Fray Luis de León
The Golden Age comprises two important and distinguished cultural movements; he Renaissance and the Baroque . Between these periods the artistic and cultural currents had their greatest splendor. In particular literature and art stand out between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries remarkably.
The Golden Age begins with the emergence of Romanticism and concludes with the Baroque. Its beginning refers to the year 1492 and its end towards 1681, year of the death of the writer Calderón de la Barca.
The Golden Age comprises a social and historical period characterized by the rise of Spanish culture. And, moreover, by a recession and social economic stagnation.
As for the field of letters and art, it comprises the period of maximum glory of literature from Spain, which was an influential model in the art and literature of the world and so cultural, artistic and literary To its maximum splendor.
Also during this stage have produced the most famous works of Spanish literature. Critics consider the Golden Age the moment of the rise of the Spanish letters where their maximum exponents were Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra and Pedro Calderón de la Barca.
The 20 writers of the Golden Age who have performed celebrated and outstanding works
1- Alonso de Ledesma (1562-1623)
Writer born in Spain, born in Segovia. It was recognized for being the precursor of the conceptismo (literary current).
Among his most outstanding works are: Spiritual Concepts, Good Night Games in a hundred puzzles, The Ballad and Imagined Monster and, Epigrams and Hieroglyphs of the life of Christ.
His aesthetic was continued by the writers Francisco de Quevedo, Luis Vélez de Guevara and Baltasar Gracián.
2- Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza (1586-1644)
Playwright and Spanish poet. Disciple of Lope de Vega. It is recognized by his poems, which were to a greater extent, compiled in lyrical and comic works, divine and human. With a romantic aesthetic and an inclination towards culteranismo (literary current of the baroque period).
His most outstanding works are: The Life of Our Lady, Convocation of the Courts of Castile and, The War.
3- Baltasar Gracián and Morales (1601-1658)
He was a Spanish writer of the Golden Age. Precursor of existentialism and postmodernity.
Highlighted by the realization of his work called El Criticón, which is one of the most important novels in Spanish literature. His works also include El Héroe; The politician Don Fernando the Catholic and, The Oracle, manual and art of prudence.
His works possess the aesthetic of the literary current of the conceptismo, like Alonso de Ledesma, its precursor. His writings are also characterized by the characteristic pessimism of the Baroque period.
4- Bartolomé de las Casas (1484-1566)
Encomendero and Spanish writer. Recognized as the Apostle of the Indians for being the universal protector of all Indians. Considered to be one of the forerunners of modern international law.
In the middle of the sixteenth century he made the Brevísima Relation of the Destruction of the Indies, which is the first modern human rights report.
He wrote innumerable works such as: On the title of the dominion of the King of Spain on the people and lands of the Indians, Eighth remedy, Treaty on the Indians that have become slaves; Memorial of Remedies for the Indies (also known as The Fifteen Remedies for the Reforming of the Indies), among many others.
5- Fernando de Rojas (1476-1541)
Writer Spanish, author of La Celestina Literary work with character of humanistic comedy, that popularized the tragicomedy of Calisto and Melibea.
Although he has not been recognized as the author of the work, the authorship is historically attributed to him. With a pessimistic style characteristic of the Baroque, it is the only work that is known.
6- Francisco Gómez de Quevedo Villegas and Santibáñez Cevallos (1580-1645)
Recognized Spanish writer of the Golden Age. For being one of the most outstanding authors in the history of the literature of that country.
He has written narrative and dramatic works but noted for his poetic work writing all the subgenres of his time.
His style was characterized by Baroque conceptismo. He has written more than 200 love-style poems. His poetry being considered the most important of the seventeenth century. The most successful love poetry of this writer is constant love beyond death.
Among his most important works are La Torre de Juan Abad and the Knight of the Order of Santiago.
7- Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla (1607-1648)
This Spanish author has more than seventy works. He made valuable contributions to the Spanish theater of the time, publishing Rojas in two parts with more than 10 works each.
Besides other pieces such as: Of the king down none; The Cain of Catalonia; Each one what it touches to him; The doctor of his love; Die thinking to kill, among others. His style was characterized by comedy.
8- Fray Luis de León (1527-1591)
Born in Spain, it is next to San Juan de la Cruz one of the most important poets of the Spanish Renaissance in the middle of the 16th century.
Its literary work of philosophical and religious style has its inspiration in the desire of the soul and in the one to move away of all the forbidden thing in the earthly world.
Being the spiritual peace, the knowledge, the moral and ascetic subjects predominant in all his literary work. Among his principal writings are: Of the names of Christ; Monte and Literal Translation and declaration of the book of the songs of Solomon.
9- Garci Lasso de la Vega (1501-1536)
This author was a Spanish poet popularly known as Garcilaso de la Vega who stood out in the lyrical production, which was the maximum expression of the Spanish Renaissance.
Garcilaso was one of the maximum exponents of the Spanish poets. He used simple, clear and clear language, preferring to use familiar and familiar words to those belonging to cultism. His style was inclined toward classicism.
Among his works are the books Le Liriche; Eclogue I, Sonnets, Poetry, among many others.
10- Hernando de Acuña (1518-1580)
Spanish writer of the Renaissance, dedicated to the lyrical and contemporary genre of Garcilaso de la Vega. It is considered a lyric poet corresponding to the first generation of Spanish poets of the Renaissance.
He has translated classics of renowned Latin and Italian writers. And it was mainly known by its poetic composition of more than 14 verses dedicated to the Emperor Carlos I of Spain.
11- Juan Boscán Almogávar (1492-1542)
Spanish Renaissance poet is recognized for having introduced in poetry, in Castilian, the lyric from Italy with Garcilaso de la Vega.
He is the author of the poem Hero, being the first that is linked to legendary and mythological themes classic at that time.
12- Juan de Valdés (1509-1541)
Spanish Protestant writer, representative of the anti-normative tendency of the sixteenth century. Author of Dialogue of the Language, a work that tries to put to the Spanish language, to the level of other languages of prestige.
Among his main works can be found also, Christian Alphabet, Comments in Spanish to the Psalms, Dialogue of Christian doctrine, etc.
13- Juan Ruiz de Alarcón and Mendoza (1581-1639)
Spanish writer of the Golden Age, born in Madrid. The style of his literature refers to the genre of comedy, using a language with sayings.
Although it published twenty comedies in two volumes, its most outstanding works are the comedy the suspicious truth and, the walls hear. The first of these is one of the key works of the Baroque theater of Spanish America. And both of the most influential for later literature.
14- Juana Inés de Asbaje and Ramírez de Santillana (1648-1695)
Religious and writer from New Spain, known as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Nicknamed the Phoenix of America, the Tenth Musa or the Mexican Tenth Musa. It is also exponent of the Century of Gold in the Literature in Spanish.
In the field of lyric, he developed his work in a Baroque style. He also performed a number of important plays, among which are Love is more labyrinth.
Among his most celebrated writings is the comedy The Pawns of a House. As for his theological side, it was denoted in his work, composed of three sacramental autos: The martyr of the sacrament; The center of Joseph and The Divine Narcissus.
15- Lope Félix de Vega Carpio (1562-1635)
Outstanding Spanish poet of the Golden Age. Recognized as one of the most exuberant authors of universal literature.
He has been nicknamed as Phoenix of the mills,"Poet of heaven and earth", and as"Monster of Nature." He is, together with Calderón de la Barca, one of the greatest Spanish exponents of the Baroque theater.
Among his most relevant works are: Arcadia; The pilgrim in his homeland; Shepherds of Bethlehem; The Égola to Claudio; Jerusalem conquered, among many others. Parts that continue to be represented today.
16- Lorenzo Van Der Hamen and Leon (1589-1664)
He was a Spanish writer of the Golden Age, who was also a Catholic priest and humanist. Throughout his life he has dealt with Lope de Vega and Francisco de Quevedo who have dedicated some of his works to him.
Among the most outstanding ones are: A Don Francisco de Quevedo, and Villegas; Way to mourn sins; Excellencies of the name of Mary; History of D. Juan de Austria, among others.
17- Luis de Góngora and Argote (1561-1627)
Poet born in Spain, maximum exponent of culteranismo (literary current of the Baroque immersed in the one of the conceptismo).
Góngora has not published any of his creations because he was not successful. Now, in modernity there are several of his works of renown. Among them: Poetic works of Góngora; The poetic language of Góngora; Gongorian studies and trials; Gongora and the Polyphemus. The Chacón Manuscript was the most authorized, having been copied by Antonio Chacón.
18- Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616)
It is the maximum figure of the Spanish Literature. Nicknamed the"Prince of the Wits". Recognized for his work, called The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha (El Quijote).
Highlighted as one of the best modern novels and maximum work of universal literature. Being the book most published and translated throughout history.
Cervantes Saavedra created the genre of the polyphonic novel, being Novelas exemplars another of his masterpieces. Among other creations of relevance are: La Galatea; The works of Persiles and, Sigismunda.
19- Pedro Calderón de la Barca (1600-1681)
Author of the Century of Gold, recognized mainly by its theater of baroque nature internationally.
With more than one hundred comedies and eighty pieces of religious theater performed, his main works include: The doctor of his honor; Life is a Dream; The son of the sun; The elf lady; The greatest charm, love and, The great theater of the world.
20- San Juan de la Cruz (1542-1591)
He was a mystic poet of the Spanish Renaissance. A religious whose profane name was Juan de Yepes Álvarez. Patron of poets in the Spanish language since 1952.
His poetry constitutes the point of intersection of literary culture. Among his most considered poems are: Dark night; Spiritual chant and, Flame of living love.
What are the main features of the Golden Age literature?
From the 1580s until the mid-eighteenth century literature transformed the styles and techniques used in Europe.
The Castilian letters reach their fullest extent influencing the literature of the countries to which it was exported.
The Renaissance period is where an anti-classical tendency appears and the humanistic knowledge of the Renaissance is propagated. A realistic style appears in literature, as opposed to classical. And one begins to write using a common language, to treat vulgar subjects.
In the Baroque period, the vulgar is set aside, now exalting the noble, the courtly and refined life using a language of an intellectual nature.
The values of the religious and the courteous, will be the main themes of writing of this baroque stage.
Among the ideas expressed in the Baroque literature in Spain, those related to social inequality, life, death and the passage of time predominated.
In addition, the feelings involved in the works had to do with disappointment, pessimism and falsehood. Impronta contributed by writers at the time.
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