Some Consequences of forced displacement Are loss of identity, stress, social exclusion and mortality.
Every year, millions of people worldwide have been forced to flee their homes or to flee because of conflicts, violence, natural disasters , And / or for violations of their human rights.
Syrian children in the refugee camp of Suruc, Turkey.
It is estimated that over 65 million are now in dire need of protection and assistance as a result of forced displacement. This number includes refugees, internally displaced persons and asylum seekers.
Most people who experience these forced episodes can not return home in the short or medium term, and sometimes it is not possible at all to return.
Unlike other forms of migration, where one chooses to mobilize either for a better job or to optimize the way of life, most people who are forced to move are forced to leave their community without being able to choose their permanence. Many times they only carry with them what little they can carry on their shoulders.
At present, refugees or forced migrants come from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea, Somalia, Mali and other places hit by serious conflicts. These have forced families to embark on dangerous journeys that, on numerous occasions, have had a fatal end.
10 consequences of forced displacement
1- Psychological stress
Adverse impacts on mental health are aggravated in these situations by the typical traumatic events that precipitate migration, as well as by the social disadvantages that follow them.
Education, health care, finance, employment and discrimination , Can become factors that perpetuate mental disorders. These people are therefore likely to suffer from depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress Y psychosis .
2. Development of resilience
The concept of" Resilience "Has been linked to mental health for quite some time. With this term, we have tried to describe the positive associations that promote the confrontation and the adaptive abilities in the face of adversity between individuals and communities.
Resilience is the ability to cope and overcome loss and trauma. The individual and collective resilience of the community can develop and act as protective factors in such displacement situations.
3- Social Exclusion
Tensions between hosts and immigrants can be heightened by the perception of religious, ethnic or cultural"alterity"that can sharpen social divisions and potentially contribute to conflict.
In addition, the policy (directly or indirectly) discriminates against immigrant and migratory populations, excluding these groups at a structural level to remain low educational level, a lower level of employment, vulnerable to crime and population rejection.
This marginalization usually generates a series of tensions that can diminish the stability of the communities.
4- Propagation of diseases
In the case of refugee camps overcrowding and inadequate sanitation systems are common. Because of this, certain diseases can spread easily in a short time.
Among these are diarrhea, which is particularly worrying in emergencies, when it is associated with prone epidemic diseases such as cholera, dysentery and typhoid fever.
Other diseases such as measles (common among children) or acute respiratory infections, among others easily transmitted, can also spread.
If the above mentioned diseases become complicated, there is a risk of mortality. Also, in refugee camps where food is scarce and where refugees depend on food rations, nutrient deficiency diseases can emerge.
Severe malnutrition can result in fatal conditions, especially among children.
6- Economic Effects
There may be positive or negative economic consequences, depending on the country and the policies it implements.
If forced migrants are large numbers and have moved to a region without sufficient resources, it places great pressure on public services, infrastructure and the public sector. This can lead to unemployment and lower local investment.
In advanced countries with plans for insertion and planning for these people, it is likely that above all the arrival of young people willing to work can accelerate the long-term growth rate of the economy.
In any case, there is no doubt how important it is for the support of the displaced's family to quickly find a good job that will help mitigate their difficult family situation, and thus overcome poverty.
7- Family Reunification
In many cases, due to the scarce resources that these people have upon arriving in the new country / city, most refugees seek to congregate among various family groups and create spontaneous settlements.
This can lead to new or larger family nuclei, which can be a support during the time away from home, or forever.
8- Division of families
In some cases the displaced are not so lucky to continue alongside their relatives, either because they did not survive the tragedy, because they are not found, or because they were assigned different places as a new destination.
This situation causes the family nucleus to split, families dispersed and some refugees left completely alone.
9- Reproductive Health Disorders
In times of turmoil, reproductive health services (including prenatal care, assisted delivery, and emergency obstetric care) are often unavailable, making young women more vulnerable.
These women lose access to family planning services, and are exposed to unwanted pregnancy in hazardous conditions.
10- Breaking of one's identity
The personality Of an individual is made up mostly of his memories of childhood. These memories become strength and confidence, which are reflected in various aspects of your daily routine and operation.
A man's association with places, people, relationships, activities and structures identity . This identity is crucial because it provides the basis on which you can learn to know and relate to others and to yourself.
The forced displacement breaks with the established identity, stripping the person of it abruptly, for a certain time or forever.
- Robert Stewart (2013). Forced migration and mental health. Oxford Academy. Retrieved from: academic.oup.com.
- Crichton, J. (2015). Human Rights: Topic guide. University of Birmingham. Retrieved from: gsdrc.org.
- Columbia University Staff (2015). Forced Migration. Columbia University. Retrieved from: columbia.edu.
- Hena Jawaid (2017). An Immigration Phenomena: The Effects of Forced Migration. Psych Central. Retrieved from: psychcentral.com.