The 6 Main Types of Robots

The Types of robots Principals are industrial, military, medical, service, entertainment and space.

It is the discipline in charge of the design, construction, operation and use of the robots, besides the computer systems to control them, to give feedback and to allow them to process information.

The 6 Main Types of Robots

Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes computing, mechanics, electricity and others in a single subject, in order to use technology to develop machines that replace humans. For example, in performing hazardous jobs - such as disabling pumps - that require a lot of force, such as mining; Or in places where humans can not survive, as under certain depths of the sea or outer space.

The idea of ​​a machine that can operate autonomously is not new, but its development did not develop until the 20th century and for a long time we have seen them take an active part in films especially science fiction. From medical robots in Star Wars and Star Trek, to fully humanized robots in Artificial Intelligence; The possibility that robots were really a possibility seemed an illusion.

However, thanks to advances in technology today, different types of robots are used in various areas while seeking to continuously improve their design, research and efficiency to be used in domestic, commercial, medical, military and Of course as an aid in the areas of mathematics, technology, engineering and science.

Robots can be designed in any shape and appearance, but some of them are made specifically to look human, allowing a better acceptance of the people who have to work with them.

As more robots are developed every day in the world, finding a way to classify them becomes more relevant. This is because robots have different specifications and can not perform more than the job for which they were designed.

For example, a robot created to assemble machines, can not be adapted for other functions. In this case, this robot will be called"assembling robot". Other robots are included as part of a complete machine, for example a welding unit. And some are specifically designed for high demand jobs.

The way to organize the immense amount of robots that exist can be using their operating system, such as stationary robots (mechanical arms), cylindrical robots, spherical robots, parallel robots, robots with wheels (one, two or three wheels), robots with Legs, bipedal robots (humanoid form), swimming robots, flying robots, spherical and mobile robots (like robotic balls) and swarms of small robots.

However, more than by their form, a more accurate classification is according to the task for which they were designed. No doubt this division will grow over time, as the design of the robots becomes increasingly specific.

Classification and types of robots

Industrial Robots

Industrial robots are manipulators designed to move materials, parts and tools and perform a series of tasks scheduled in production and manufacturing environments.

This type of robot is redesigning the industry, since they allow to perform dangerous and repetitive works in a high performance and without making mistakes. That is why it is now increasingly common to find them in all kinds of factories.

Most of these robots are used for arc welding, material handling and assembly applications. Industrial robots are grouped according to their axes, material sheath size, structure type, speed and payload capacity.

Industrial robots are usually articulated mechanical arms, used for all types of industrial applications such as arc welding, materials handling, painting and other tasks. Within this classification may also be included auto-driving vehicles.

This type of robot has a controller to be able to program and operate it, besides the robot that will perform the movements and actions with which it is programmed.

Military Robots

They are autonomous or remote controlled robots that have been designed for military applications such as transport and search, or rescue and attack. In this classification we can find different types of drones, especially espionage and data collection and images.

With the new advances it is estimated that in the future will be the robots that fight in the wars through systems of automatic weapons. The most important system currently in use is the unmanned IAI Pioneer and RQ-1 Predator airborne vehicles, which can be armed with remotely operated grounded aerial missiles.

Currently, there are military robots such as drone ships belonging to the United States Navy and can operate together to protect a coast line from other invading vehicles. The"robobarcos"work in swarm and can decide collectively which of them will follow the invading ship. They can perform four different behaviors without direct human control: patrolling, sorting, tracking and tracking.

In the future it is planned that these"robobarcos"will defend as the first line the manned ships of the Navy during their patrols in the sea.

It even argues that this system can be introduced into ships that are already in use, reducing the cost of starting drone construction from the beginning.

While military robots are programmed to perform various functions, including the ability to categorize a target as"neutral"or"hostile,"human supervision is key to reclassifying an item if the robot's judgment against the "threat".

Military robots are a solution that allows the armies of the world to continue performing their defense and patrolling work, but avoiding ever more endangering the lives of their soldiers.

Robots in the Medical Industry

These robots are used in medicine and medical institutions such as hospitals, rehabilitation centers, clinics, dental or ophthalmological centers, among others. Some of the most used medical robots are the robots surgeons, modern equipment that allow to execute complicated operations with a minimum of errors and entering zones in the body in which it would be impossible to operate without this technology.

Robots can be a support in the work of health professionals, assist and provide extensive services and care, beyond what human workers can perform. They are especially useful in repetitive and monotonous jobs, giving the option of absolutely replacing people with these robots.

Working with robots has great advantages in the field of medicine. There are statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States that from 25 patients, one will contract an in-hospital infection such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), with one fatality among nine affected .

It has been proven that with the help of robots like Xenex, disinfection systems are more efficient. The Xenex robot is a tool for automatic disinfection of medical facilities, using ultraviolet methodologies to damage the cells of microorganisms, achieving an effective elimination and a real decrease in cases of infections by this type of bacteria.

Robots in the medical field can not only be engaged in direct health work. Two hospitals in Belgium will employ a friendly robot to replace the work of receptionist. This has several advantages, because at the end of the day the robots will not be exhausted and they will always be able to receive patients with the same smile. The robot in this case, Pepper, recognizes more than 20 languages ​​and identifies whether the patient is male, female or child.

But this is not all. If we go straight into the medical field, robots can replace the best of surgeons in accuracy and efficiency. With a completely improved field of vision, without involuntary tremors and without fatigue in the body, the robots used in surgery are a reliable and effective alternative.

This is what the Da Vinci Surgery System provides, allowing the surgeon to have a 3D magnified field of vision and medical instruments that can bend and rotate at angles greater than human hands. With the Da Vinci System, surgeons can perform a complex operation through only small incisions. It is a 100% procedure controlled by the medical surgeon, and allows successful operations with a precision that was previously impossible.

In addition to these applications, medical robots have multiple uses. From moving through the hospital rooms heavy loads of remedies or laboratory tests; Until he can lift sick people who can not stand up.

In Japan, the"robobear,"a robot in the form of a bear-helps to move patients from their beds to wheelchairs or to move postrados. Its friendly face and strength allow patients to feel at ease and avoid the wear and tear of health personnel, as they must lift patients up to 40 times in a day.

As for drug administration, robots are much more accurate as well. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute have experimented with micro-sized robots, less than a millimeter-pure sci-fi style-that would have the ability to be injected into the patient's blood and more accurately target treatments and other mechanisms of relief.

Within this same area we find the Veebot, a robot responsible for extracting blood samples more accurately and more effectively, to avoid the pain and fear that a large majority of patients feel when undergoing this situation. With this robot the process of taking a sample takes less than one minute and has an 83% accuracy.

And finally, medical robots have their share of tenderness. PARO robots have been designed by the Japanese company AIST and consist of designs in the form of animals that hospital patients can pet and hug.

We know that contact with pets can reduce stress, relax and reduce the loneliness of the sick, so this sweet baby seal with artificial skin provides the benefits of a therapy and reduces stress during the disease process in both patients As in the medical staff who work with them.

Service Robots

Service robots are a huge leap in improving productivity on virtually any task. Here we find the possibility of automating all kinds of work that requires efficiency and speed, such as taking an order in a restaurant or taking service to the room in a hotel.

Although previously robots have not been considered to solve these needs, always used in high engineering and other scientific environments, now the possibility of opening robotics to other areas in the world.

Service robots would also reduce delivery costs substantially. Their high productivity that allows them to operate autonomously, will also improve the capacity of the humans to program them, since it can be done for example more tasks in the same time, with efficiency and precision.

This type of robot opens a new context beyond the work area of ​​industrial robots, previously only intended for dangerous, boring and difficult tasks. With new developments and evolution in their development, robots are more intelligent and able to execute complex manipulations and work in different environments, have greater skills of perception and understanding of their environment, their programming is much simpler and are designed to work With humans safely.

With this it is possible to introduce them in different types of markets, being an opportunity for businesses allowing greater productivity and with the same, the possibility of performing more creative tasks in a fraction of the time.

Entertainment Robots

These robots are some of the most sophisticated, with a high performance design, but also sensitivity and grace to interact with people.

We can find from robots used as toys to robots that help teaching knowledge.

In this area we can find the robots that are used in films to represent for example dinosaurs or other fantastic creatures. Also pet robots and those used in sports.

Space Robots

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, uses various types of robots for missions in space. Some of them are used in exploring terrains and environments such as Mars or the Moon. These robots are called analogues and are tested in areas similar to those they will explore, such as deserts. Some examples are ROVER and Mars Curiosity Rover, which is the size of a small car.

Within this category we also find the robots used in space stations to support the work of astronauts, such as mechanical arms, among others.

Are there more classifications? Of course. The development of the robots is only in its first stage and the projections estimate an increase in the radius of its operations in the next 5 years.

Scientific development and advances in technology will allow the inclusion of robots to improve productivity and efficiency in the tasks, providing with this a better quality of life in all types of areas.

References

  1. Robotics. From wikipedia.org.
  2. IEEE Spectrum. From spectrum.ieee.org.
  3. RobotWorx. From robots.com.
  4. Learn about robots. From learnaboutrobots.com.
  5. Medical Futurist. From medicalfuturist.com.