He imperialism Is an unequal human and territorial relationship based on ideas of superiority and the practices of domination of one people over others. The words Imperialism and Empire come from the Latin imperare and imperium,"im"means"penetration"and"parare"means to order or to prepare.
The imperialist countries of history have had a great influence on the course of the world, its policies, its economy, and society as a whole.
"The White Man's Burden"March 16, 1899.
Usually imperialist ideas are applied through different types of colonization or cultural subordination, the latter being the most active form in today's society, which is developed through the media and other forms of cultural production. On the other hand, the culture of the periphery, can exert influence to the Empire and until absorbing it.
Historical imperialist countries
In Classical Antiquity The Achaemenid Empire or Persian Empire The territories of the present states of Iran, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Russia, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Greece and Egypt.
From the reign of Cyrus II to its peak in 500 BC, its conquests made it the largest empire until then. 330 BC When Darius III was defeated by Alexander the Great, the Achaemenid Empire ceased its existence.
Founded by Aquémenes, the Achaemenid Empire was the rival of the ancient Greeks. In this empire the members of the ethnic Persian enjoyed privileges, although it is possible to emphasize that the other subjects enjoyed great autonomy and maintained their language, religion, institutions and customs.
The largest empire of ancient times, with approximately 6.5 million km², was the Roman Empire. The imperial period of Roman civilization in classical antiquity fur the third, post-republic and was characterized as an autocratic government.
In later times, the Roman civilization expanded, reaching its maximum expression during the reign of Trajan. The Punic wars impelled the Romans to leave the Italian peninsula and colonize Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Hispania, Iliria and other territories.
The status of the citizens of these territories was different from that of the Romans. In addition, Roman laws were imposed on all peoples, although they also retained their language, religion and other aspects.
Empire of the Huns
The Empire of the Huns of Attila , Who was the last and most powerful leader of this town, colonized the Eurasian territory from Central Europe to the Black Sea and from the Danube to the Baltic Sea.
His empire was limited to434, the year in which he took power, until his death in 453. Known as The scourge of God, Attila was the main enemy of the Roman Empire and contributed greatly to his crisis. Attila twice invaded the Balkans, attacked Rome and besieged Constantinople.
The empire of the extinguished after the death of Attila. No writings belonging to Hun chroniclers are preserved and what is known of them comes from Roman sources. Attila is a legendary figure in the history of Europe and historians argue over his reign. Was Attila a cruel king or a noble and visionary emperor?
The Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan Was the second most extensive in history. It was founded by Genghis Khan from 1206 to 1350 in its entirety and until 1368 in the Mongol Empire of Yuan.
Its maximum extension was about 33 000 000 km² from the Korean peninsula to the Danube with a population of more than 100 million inhabitants. Although their state organization was less developed, the Mongols managed to conquer China, Iraq and other peoples who were the most advanced of the time.
The Mongol people adopted the customs of many of these peoples and this allowed them to develop the institutions of their state. In the Mongol Empire a system of meritocracy prevailed and any of the subjects could make a military or political career.
In addition the Mongols showed respect for the religions of the conquered peoples. Freedom of worship allowed the conquered to preserve their culture. The heyday of the Empire, the Mongolian Pax, from 1210 to 1350 greatly favored the commerce of the conquered peoples.
Throughout history, the Chinese Empire, regardless of the dynasty that occupied the throne, exerted political and economic pressure to its neighbors like Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Historical sources document that the King of Goryeo was to be accepted by the Emperor of China.
Likewise, China interfered in the internal affairs of these states and exercised what could be the first example of Cultural imperialism. For example, Japanese historical records tell about Japanese embassies visiting China to study the principles of state administration. China also colonized territories of other Asian peoples, such as Tibet.
The Ottoman Empire or Ottoman Turkish Empire Was a multiethnic and multi-denominational state ruled by the Osmanlí dynasty. The Ottoman Empire began in Asia Minor and was strengthened by the decline of the Seljuk Empire.
The Seljuk Empire Iran, Iraq and Anatolia between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. The apogee of the Seljuk Empire, whose historical period from 1077 to 1307, was a Turkish sultanate. Turkmen, Greeks, and Armenians coexisted in this empire. The empire was weakened by internal strife and by the onslaught of the Mongols.
When the Seljuk Empire fell, the Ottomans conquered the territories that were previously dominated by them. In addition to defeating the attacks of the Mongols, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople in 1453, which helped to consolidate their empire.
During its sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Ottoman Empire expanded from the European Southeast to northern Africa, with 29 provinces and 4 vassal states. Numerous cultural traits and traditions of the subjects were adopted by the Turks. During the nineteenth century, many territories of the empire became independent and at the beginning of the twentieth century the empire was dismembered.
In 1923, the Turkish revolutionary movements founded the Turkish Republic and declared the abolition of the Caliphate, leaving the Islamic world without a leader. Members of the Ottoman Empire, Arabs, Christians and Jews enjoyed certain freedoms, such as freedom of worship, and also had their own courts and their own law.
In the eighteenth century, the ideology of the Ottoman Empire shifted from pan-Islam to panturism or panturism. Pan-Islamism is an idea of union of all Muslims, which allowed all Muslims of the Ottoman Empire to have the same opportunities and only subjects of other religions were limited in certain rights, whereas panturanism is the idea of unity of All Turkic peoples.
Although the Empire has existed since the Old Age, the term"imperialism"is usually limited to European expansion from the Age of discoveries (15th century) Until the process of decolonization after the Second World War. More specifically, the period from 1880 to 1914, when it occurred The Cast of Africa. The most important actors of the Race for Africa were the British Empire and the French Empire.
The British Empire Existed between the XVI and XX centuries, until 1949 with a population of about 458 million people and about 29,500,000 km², that is to say a quarter of the world population and a fifth of the terrestrial surface, being thus the empire more Extensive history.
It had territories in all the continents, being its colony more rich and important India. Thanks to colonial rule, the British Empire increased its presence around the world. Many important countries today are former British colonies, such as Australia, Canada, the United States and others.
During the first colonial period, British economic policy was mercantilist and only after the Independence of the United States, the British Empire adopted the economic doctrine of free trade. After losing America, the Empire understood that it can obtain benefits of a territory although it is not its colony, these ideas allowed the development of the self-governed colonial system .
That is to say, that in the British colonies, the English usually supported a caste or political or ethnic group and these in turn managed the colony. Although European civilization professed the idea of white supremacy, it was the United Kingdom that banned the slave trade in 1807 and then abolished slavery in 1834, setting a precedent for other colonial empires.
The French Colonial Empire Existed from the 17th century until the 1960s and during its heyday, extended over 12,898,000 km², including the territory of France, the Empire constituted 8.7% of the land area.
Between the islands and archipelagos located in the North Atlantic, Caribbean, Indian Ocean, South Pacific, North Pacific and the Antarctic Ocean and continental territory in Africa, Asia and Latin America the population approached 2,543,000 people .
After the fall of the colonial system, many of these territories became French overseas territories. The largest of the colonies were controlled by the French Colonial Forces. France, unlike Ingletarra, did not believe in self-government and, in the main, favored the emigration of its nationals to the colonies.
After The discovery of America in 1492, Spain conformed its Colonial Empire , That had its greater incidence in the American continent. From the United States to the land of Fuergo, the Spaniards colonized part of the territory, organizing two viceroyalties, that of New Spain and that of Peru.
Spain also colonized the Philippines, the Marianas (which included Guam) and the Carolinas (which included the Palaos), under the jurisdiction of New Spain. In its heyday reached the 20 million square kilometers and its maximum expansion occurred during the reigns of Felipe II, Felipe III and Felipe IV, period of dynastic union with Portugal.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the"viceregal"and non-colonial territorial system existed. The overseas territories were extensions of the metropolis, not colonies and their citizens, Spaniards not Indians or Africans, were equal in rights. In the nineteenth century these territories acquired a classic colonial status, which causes discontent and unleashes a wave of independence of"Venezuelan Spaniards,""Colombian Spaniards"and other Creoles.
Portuguese colonial empire
The Portuguese colonial empire Was not one of the most extensive, nor its metropolis the most powerful, but Portugal stands out for having opened the Age of Discoveries with the voyages of Bartolomé Díaz and Vasco de Gama.
The decline of the Portuguese Empire was gradual, but its most important loss was the Independence of Brazil in 1822, a country discovered by Pedro Álvares Cabral from which Portugal collected resources such as gold, precious stones, sugar cane, coffee and other crops.
In the nineteenth century, after the unification of Italy, the Italians tried to take over overseas territories, I understand the wealth that the other European countries had obtained thanks to them.
In 1936 Italy conquered Ethiopia, in addition also received the concession in China of the city of Tianjin. Italy did not have colonies in America and its colonial empire had its apogee in the years 1939 and 1940 when with the help of Germany intervened Greece, Albania and Montenegro. One of Mussolini's ideas was the creation of the New Roman Empire .
German colonial empire
German colonial empire It existed between 1871 and 1918. After the First World War Alemia was stripped of its colonies in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Due to the short German colonization, no German cultural influence at present has remained in the local cultures.
The Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919 divided the German colonies between France, United Kingdom, Union of South Africa, Belgium, Australia, Japan, New Zealand and Portugal. In this way Belgium and other countries became Colonial Empires.
Belgian colonial empire
He Belgian colonial empire , As a result of the partition of Africa, when King Leopold II was granted most of it and, in addition to the Treaty of Versailles (1919), existed for a short time in comparison with other countries. Denmark From the beginning of the thirteenth century it owned Estonian territories.
In addition, when they united with Norway, both states precluded the possession of Greenland, the Faroe Islands, the Orkney Islands, the Shetland Islands and Iceland. In the 17th century, Denmark and Norway Began to expand to Africa, the Caribbean, and India.
The colony of Denmark in Tranquebar, or Trankebar was near India. They also owned fortresses in Ghana and the Virgin Islands, which they later sold to the United States. Norway for its part was losing territories by losing litigation against the Scots that claimed the territories as theirs.
Swedish colonial empire
The Swedish colonial empire occupied territories of Norway, Latvia, Russia, Germany, Finland and Estonia. It existed from 1638 to 1663, and from 1785 to 1878. The Swedish colonial possessions were relatively small, and they were never maintained simultaneously.
In America Sweden colonized New Sweden, which lost in 1655, Guadeloupe, which then returned to France, the Swedish Gold Coast in Africa that lost in the seventeenth century and St. Bartholomew in the West Indies, which in 1878 sold to France.
The expansion of Russian empire Towards the West begins in Century XVI during the reign of Ivan the Terrible that annexed the Tartars to Russia. From then on Russia colonized the towns of Siberia until arriving at Alaska, that later sold to the United States. His interests met with those of Japan in Asia that in the 20th century claimed to be hegemon of Asian peoples.
Thanks to the popularity of the idea of Pansianism, popular in Japan in the first half of the twentieth century, Japan developed a colonialist program that took it to occupy Korea in 1910 and Formosa in 1895.
Japan also attacked China in 1937 and this attack continued during World War II, in which Japan fought allied to Germany and Italy. Their colonial ambitions led Japan to confront Russia by influence in Manchuria.
The last colonial power is United States of America Which have been noted for promoting the cultural imperialism of peoples. In the book To read Donald Duck Armand Mattelart and Ariel Dorfman argue that the United States promotes its way of life through the media and the cinema.
Also worthy of mention are the ideas of the Cultural Industry of the Frankfurt School, whose aim is to impose the cultural production of the powerful countries to the developing countries.