Gender Ideology: Origins, Ideology and Criticisms

The gender ideology or gender theory is a doctrine that developed at the end of the s. XX and early s. XXI. It argues that the differences between the masculine and feminine are due to social and cultural canons, leaving aside the biological characteristics of individuals.

This current is derived from cultural Marxism and proposes to put the social over the biological, in order to give the person the power to define and decide on their sex, sexuality and gender. The theory combines ideas from the theory queer , which defines gender as a social construction.

Gender ideology or gender theory

The theory of gender also takes elements of social constructionism (social and gender roles), feminism and other studies related to transsexuality, sexual identity and biological sex.


  • 1 origins
    • 1.1 First studies
  • 2 Feminism and equality of the sexes
    • 2.1 Postulates that gave rise to the gender ideology
  • 3 Ideology
    • 3.1 Essential elements of the individual
  • 4 Main characteristics of the gender ideology
  • 5 critics
  • 6 References


Although it is a current term, authors and scholars agree that the first milestone of gender ideology was the work of Simone de Beauvoir The second sex (1949), which refers to the fact that man is able to exercise his freedom by rejecting the previous reality.

One of the most important sections of the book:"No woman born, one is born", allowed to establish that the gender of the individual is not determined until it begins to interact in society.

Beauvoir's approaches were influenced by neo-Marxist currents, which allowed him to extrapolate the main terms and take them to the relationships between man and woman, while formulating new concepts about sexuality.

First studies

In the mid-1950s, the concept and implications of gender were already being handled in the United States. One of the first scholars was the psychologist John Money, who introduced the gender roles in his studies related to chromosomal sex and anatomical sex.

This would also be reinforced by the psychoanalyst Robert Stoller, when he carried out research on transsexuals and the possible causes of the lack of sexual identity since childhood. Later, this would be called gender identity .

Feminism and equality of the sexes

One of the first objectives pursued by the feminism of the first wave was to ensure the equality of men and women socially and politically. However, after the second half of s. XX pursues the parity of the genders general.

That is to say, by leaving behind biological differences, there were the social roles and behaviors imposed that should be repealed.

With the arrival of the Sexual Revolution of the 60s, the first criticisms of the system of traditional values ​​were established, such as the one manifested in Betty Friedman's book. The feminine mystic (1963).

This work emphasizes that, thanks to the role of women as mothers and housewives, she was unable to take a more active role in the public sphere.

Postulates that gave rise to the gender ideology

At the time there were evidences such as the following:

- Man uses sex as an instrument of domination and power.

- In order to counteract the control exercised, sexual liberation is necessary. That is, sex is not only for procreation.

- It is necessary to radically separate the biological from the cultural. This would become the cornerstone for the Theory of gender.

- The scenario is created for the formation of groups in favor of sexual diversity.

During the 1990s, authors such as Judith Butler gave the theory and the basis of gender theory strong enough to influence the coming years.

Even his position and those of other thinkers were acclaimed in 1995 at the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing.


As already mentioned above, this theory finds its basis in several ideological currents:

- Cultural Marxism, which proposes a social, political and cultural revolution against the traditional value system.

- The theory queer , also a consequence of the emergence of the sexual revolution and feminism of the 60s and 70s. It states that personal identity depends only on our will and is subject to our needs and desires. One of the greatest exponents was Judith Butler, who affirms that gender is fluid and multiple.

- The atheist existentialism, raised in the work of Beauvoir and from the existentialism of Sartre. It proposes that there is no metaphysical and religious entity, at the same time that it controls the fear of death since there is no figure that gives way to some kind of salvation.

Essential elements of the individual

Some authors highlight the need to include three essential aspects to build the identity of the individual, an important factor in this case:

Biological sex

Determined by physical and biological features.

Psychological sex

Given by the set of experiences related to the masculine and feminine.

Sociological sex

Perception of people about the individual.

Main characteristics of the gender ideology

- The human being is born sexually neutral.

- Any distinction between men and women is avoided.

- It is expected that there are no differences between the behavior and responsibilities established between men and women in the family environment.

- Family means any type of human group.

- Supports the legalization of the union of members of the same sex.

- Accept the various sexual tendencies.

- Recognizes the multiplicity of genres.

- The social precedes the biological. That is, determining masculinity or femininity depends on what that person believes about himself and not on the characteristics of his body.

Taking into account these main ideological currents and the dimensions involved in the process of sexual identity, the Theory of gender emerges to consolidate at the end of s. XX. Its validity remains in our days.


Intellectuals, theoreticians, philosophers and even members of the Catholic Church have expressed dissatisfaction with the Theory of gender, thus expressing a series of criticisms. The most common are the following:

- It is believed to be part of a project focused on the destruction of the family.

- Some see it as a doctrine that wishes to impose itself forcefully and violently.

- They state that it promotes the culture of death.

- It has a reductionist vision of reality.


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  4. Gender ideology. (s.f.) In Sexuality does matter. Retrieved: February 23, 2018. In Sexuality, it does matter from
  5. Gender ideology. (s.f.) In Metapedia. Retrieved: February 23, 2018. In Metapedia of
  6. Garza Medina, Luis. (s.f.) What is the theory of gender? On Retrieved: February 23, 2018. On from
  7. Peiró, Claudia. (2013) What is the theory of gender? In Infobae. Retrieved: February 23, 2018. In infobae of
  8. Siles, Catalina & Delgado, Gustavo. (s.f.) Theory of gender: What are we talking about? In Ieschile. Retrieved: February 23, 2018 from

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