Biomes of Colombia: Characteristics and Types

The Biomes of Colombia Are the areas of this country that share the weather . Something that is reflected directly in the fauna and flora present in the area.

There are many types of biomes in the world, which can also be understood as a grouping of Ecosystems Which share essential characteristics with each other, in addition to appearing in a particular territory.

Images and map of the biomes of colombia

Colombia is a country located in the northwest of South America. The climate in Colombia is of the type tropical , Because this country passes the equatorial line.

However, Colombia has areas of very high heights, so temperatures tend to vary between regions.

Biomes can be grouped into zonal zones, whose composition is determined directly by the climate of the area.

In Colombia, the area is directly related to the relief . This country has at least three zonal zones (Hernández, s.f.).

There are also azonal biomes, which are not directly related to the climate and where elements like Characteristics of soils And meteorological phenomena.

Through the zonal biomes can be understood the general geographical situation of a certain place, but with the azonal biomes can be studied the specific characteristics of small portions of land.

The 20 main types of Colombian biomes

Zonal zones

1- Equatorial humid

It is one of the most common biomes in Colombia, because it occupies most of the surfaces that oscillate between 800 and 1500 meters above sea level.

The main characteristic of the humid equatorial biome is that in areas where it is present there is no water deficit.

For this reason, this biome is the one that is present in the Colombian rainforests, which are of warm thermal floor.

The Amazon rainforest is of humid equatorial type, its vegetation is exuberant and its powerful rains.

2- Alternating tropical

Also within the equatorial zonobioma, it is found in rainforests and deciduous forests, tropical forests and tropical dry forests.

Its presence in Colombia originates especially in transition zones from one humid equatorial biome to another.

3- Subxerofítico tropical

It represents the intermediate category, being located between the alternohígrico tropical biome and the tropical suxerofítico.

The main difference with the biomes already mentioned is the amount of water, which in the tropical subxerofític biome begins to be scarce.

Rainfall occurs in less than six months and at low water levels, which may extend over several years leading to large droughts.

In Colombia, this biome is very present in several regions. In the upper part of the department of La Guajira, there is a good representation, although it can also be found in the Caribbean Coast, in the areas of Santa Marta and Barranquilla.

In addition, it finds space in the environs of Cúcuta, as well as in parts of the Magdalena river and the canyons of Dagua and Cauca.

4- Tropical desert

In northeastern Colombia along the border with Venezuela, there is a particular biome, which is not repeated in any other part of the territory. It is the tropical desert, where temperatures commonly exceed 30 ° C.

In Colombia, it is reflected in the department of La Guajira, while in Venezuela it is manifested in the states of Falcón and Zulia.

The vegetation is very small, consisting of small scrubs with abstract forms, in addition to the traditional cactus and cardones.

When the three months of rain occur, in the non-sandy areas a slight greening occurs. The trees that are there are of reduced size and their fruits are rich in water.

5- Mountain Orobioma

Colombia is an essentially Andean country, so its biomes are directly determined by the height of its mountains.

Through the mountain orobiomas can be understood the thermal floors present in the Colombian mountain ranges.

6-Heat-treated thermo-orobioma

It is located between the 800 and 1500 msnm and 2200-2800 msnm being able to extend to more than 3000 meters in some cases. Marked by the presence of tall trees, it is the first floor of the Andean mountains.

7- Andean jungle orobioma

It corresponds to the forests or forests of mist, with a dense vegetation and reduced solar brightness. The vegetation remains abundant, especially in regard to the tree category.

8- Moorish orobioma

It is found when the height in the mountain exceeds 3000 msnm. The vegetation is reduced to small plants like the frailejones.

The temperatures oscillate between 7 and 10 ° C, being able to descend to 0 ° C. In rainy season, these areas show significant snowfall.

9- Snowy Orobioma

Corresponds to the perpetual snows, conformed by the caps and glaciers. These are in the Andean region And in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, which is the highest mountain range in the world.

It occurs at heights above 4700 meters above sea level. In Colombia there are six perpetual snows.

Azonal biomes

1- Pedobiomas kinema-quersophytes

Present in rocky areas and feet of mountains. They can be found in the Amazon and Orinoquía Colombian

There are small shrubs, although the vegetation is essentially grassy. It is similar to the tepuyes of the Gran Sabana in Venezuela or the Shield of Guayana in general.

2- Pedophiomas freatófitos

They are found in the gallery jungles. In Colombia, they can be observed in the eastern plains, especially in the coasts of the rivers.

In addition, it can also be seen in areas flooded by rain. In Sucre and Chocó you can see this biome.


They are mangroves. They can be observed in the lagoons, generally with marine connection. They are forests that settle their roots in the water, with trees that can reach up to 5 meters in height.

There are many species of mangroves on the Colombian Caribbean coast. They are also observed in the Pacific Coast, to a lesser extent.

4- Helobomas

In areas with insufficient drainage that tend to flood, helobiomas form.

In Colombia you can observe the morichales, the guandales, and the cativales. The vegetation is composed of tall palms, forming marshy structures.

5- Psammobiomas

Traditional of the river banks, this biome can be observed in the Orinoquía or in the Colombian coasts. In addition, it can be present in the dunes.

6- Pedobiomas of savannas

With a vegetation consisting of grasses and some isolated arboreal entity, the savannas constitute as vast extensions of flat earth.

Drought tends to be higher than six months and rains are characterized by their intensity. The Colombian Plains are the best sample.

7- Kersophytic pedi-biomas of savannas

The vegetation increases, with greater presence of not so isolated trees and shrubs, among which are the chaparros. Present in Guiania and Vaupés.

8- Amazonian peinobiomas

They are forests of low trees, denominated like caatingal in Guainía.

9- Tempered subxerophytic Pedorobioma

With a semi-arid climate and a soil prone to erosion, it occurs in enclaves of river basins such as Chicamocha or Patía.

10- Pherobioma of cold kerosine

It is strongly present in valleys where there are lake bodies at more than 2300 masl. The Savannah of Bogota and the Valley of Ugaté are some examples.

11- Pedorobioma of cold oxyhydrophytic forests

They are characterized by black, acid and marshy soils. Present in altiplanos of the department of Boyacá and Cundinamarca.


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