Aymaras Kingdoms: History and Main Characteristics

The aymaras kingdoms They were a group of peoples that emerged in Peru between the tenth and fifteenth centuries, just after the disintegration of the Tiahuanaco culture. They developed in the altiplano located on the Collao plateau.

For this reason, they were surrounded by the Andes Mountain Range and Lake Titicaca was the point of development. They expanded along the coasts of Peru, from northern Argentina and in some places in Bolivia and Chile.

Aymaras Kingdoms: History and Main Characteristics

The Aymara kingdoms or lacustrine kingdoms were composed of manors. These were united by their language, the technology used and the style of their villages.

Among the most important kingdoms are the Pacaje kingdom, the Colla kingdom and the Lupaca kingdom, located in the western area of ​​Lake Titicaca.

These were conquered by the Incas and disappeared. However, at present there are still descendants of these kingdoms in Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.


The Aymara kingdoms are part of the period of late regional developments. These kingdoms arise along the Lake Titicaca basin after the disintegration of the Tiahuanaco culture.

They were called Aymara kingdoms because they all had in common the use of the Amerindian Aymara language, which is part of Quechumara.

The Aymara kingdoms had a kind of government made up of the colla, lupacaca and pacaje kingdoms. These were in charge of governing the kingdoms and lordships smaller or weaker, among which are: Canas, Uros, Ubinas, Collaguas, Canchis, among others.

However, they were in constant disputes over the territories. That is why it is said that they did not achieve a consistent geopolitical unity.

Some Aymara kingdoms supported the Incas in the conquests of other civilizations. Paradoxically, the Inca Empire would conquer them later, dominating the colla and making the rest accept their rule.

The Inca Empire could conquer them taking advantage of the rivalries that existed between them, especially among the Lupacas and Collas.

It is important to note that it was the Spaniards who called these kingdoms Aymaras, since before their arrival they were only known to each one by name.

The main Aymara kingdoms and lordships

The Collas

It is one of the most important Aymara kingdoms that was part of what the Spaniards called the Aymara tri-state. The power fell to three kingdoms that were in charge of governing the smaller kingdoms.

They were developed in the western region of Lake Titicaca and north of the city of Puno.

The lupacas

This kingdom was located southeast of Lake Titicaca. It was conformed by seven subdivisions: Ilave, Yunguyo, Juli, Zepita, Ácora, Pomata and Chucuito.

The packings

The kingdom of the pacajes was one of the three aymaras kingdoms that conformed the tri-state. It was located southeast of Lake Titicaca.

The gray hair and the canchis

They were two Aymaras who were collaborators of the Inca Empire. They settled on the Collao plateau.

The ponds or charkas

The kingdom of the ponds was located in what is now known as the city of Sucre of the Republic of Bolivia, specifically in the upper basin of the Cachimayu River.

The carangas

The carangas were kingdoms that developed their culture in the vicinity of the Lauca River.

The soras

They were lordships located between the corangas and the quillacas.

The Aymara language

The Aymara language is a language that belongs to Quechumara. It has two aspects: the Aymara language Tupino and the Aymara language collavino.

The Aymara language has been transmitted from generation to generation through speech, since it does not have a writing system.

Precisely because it lacks a writing system, the Aymara language has been lost. However, it is still dominated by some inhabitants of Peru and Bolivia, descendants of the Aymaras.

A curious fact of the Aymara language is the way in which words are constructed through the use of suffixes. The Aymara language recognizes only three vowels: a, i, u.

The Aymara language has had certain changes imposed by the Spaniards. An example of this was the incorporation of a decimal numbering system. Originally his system was pentadecimal; that is, based on five.

Currently the numbers in Aymara are counted in the following way: maya (1), paya (2), kimsa (3), pusi (4), phisqa (5), suxta (6), paqalqu (7), kimsaqalqu (8) ), llatunga (9) and tunga (10).

However, the numbers counted from the ancestral form of Aymara are counted in the following way: maya, paya, kimsa, pusi, qalqu, maqalqu, paqalqu, kimsaqalqu, pusiqalqu, qalquqalqu.

Economic organization

The Aymara kingdoms had an economy based on livestock and agriculture.

Cattle raising

The Aymaras raised llamas and alpacas. For the breeding of these animals, the natural pastures of the region were used.

The llamas and the alpacas provide the Aymaras with wool, meat and fertilizer. They were also used as a means of transport.


The Aymara highlighted in agriculture by the introduction of innovative planting techniques and the use of fertilizer.

- Agriculture techniques

The innovative techniques applied to the development of agriculture were the oxbow lakes and the ridges.

The oxbow lakes are depressions that allow the accumulation of water. They have double function: they avoid the nesting and water the furrows or ridges.

The ridges are furrows taller and wider than the oxbow lakes, and in these the planting of what you want to grow is done. Then, a groove or ridge is created and right next to it a cocha is created.

Through the application of these techniques, the Aymara managed to grow quinoa, potatoes, oca, olluco, among others.


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  8. Who are the Aymara people. Retrieved on November 03, 2017, from worldatlas.com

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