The cooperation Is the action of working or acting together with another individual or group to achieve a common goal or benefits for both.
In this sense, it opposes competition, in which individuals are faced with the object of one of them being victorious.
Cooperative relationships are characterized by being voluntary and free associations. This means that if one of the two parties does not consent to the association, but is forced to accept, then it is not cooperation, even if the relationship may be of benefit to the reluctant party.
For the human being, cooperation is an ethical and moral value, so it must be present in the relationships between individuals, as well as in the institutions they have created (organizations, states, among others).
It should be noted that cooperation not only exists in human relations, but also is common among other living beings. In this sense, animals and plants also establish cooperative relationships.
Some examples of cooperation are listed below: cooperation between humans, cooperation between nations, cooperation between animals, cooperation with plants
Four examples of cooperation between humans
1- Cooperative Associations
Cooperatives are associations of people who unite voluntarily to meet their social, economic and cultural needs and aspirations.
Cooperative associations are based on the values of mutual aid, individual and collective responsibility, democracy, equality, equity and solidarity. In addition, there must be honesty, integration among the members of the cooperative.
The principles of cooperatives are:
- Free adherence, which means that anyone is entitled to join a cooperative.
- Acceptance. Cooperatives should not discriminate against any member, regardless of gender, religion, skin color, political orientation or sexual orientation.
2- Volunteer Firefighters
The volunteer fire department is an association of individuals trained in first aid, fire control and arrest, who cooperate with other individuals in society.
3- Civil Protection Bodies
Civil protection bodies cooperate with other citizens in safeguarding their safety.
4- Community meetings
They are associations that occur among members of a community and demonstrate cooperation.
Three examples of cooperation between nations
1- Hurricane Katrina
The tragedy of Hurricane Katrina, which devastated the city of New Orleans, caused many countries to unite to help the United States solve the damage caused by the hurricane.
2- International Organizations
International organizations are examples of cooperation between countries. These include the United Nations (UN), which seeks to maintain peace between the countries of the world, and the World Health Organization (WHO).
3- Troughs in Colombia
During the gutters that affected Colombia in 2011, many countries demonstrated their support by sending food, medicines and other items to Colombia.
Six examples of cooperation between animals
In nature, there are examples of cooperation between animals. Some examples of these relationships are:
1- Picabueyes and rhinoceroses, buffaloes, antelopes and giraffes
The cooperative relationship between picabueyes (birds) and certain mammals is a type of protocooperation, a relationship in which individuals of two different species establish ties because it is beneficial to both.
In this relationship, the picabueyes feed on the parasites found in the skin of mammals (which prevents mammals from contracting certain diseases) and in return they get transportation and food.
2- Fish cleaners and customers
The relationship between cleaner fish and client fish is also an example of protocooperation. Fish cleaners are animals with a small size, allowing them to enter the mouths of customers.
In this cooperative relationship, cleaners get food and customers stay clean.
3- Ants and aphids
Ants and aphids are another example of protocooperation. In this relationship, the aphids produce a substance called"honeydew"from the sage they extract from the leaves of the plants.
The honeydew is of benefit to the ants, who"milk"the aphids to secrete this substance. In return, the ant protects the aphid from predators.
4- The meerkats
The meerkats, also called mongooses, cooperate with each other in establishing watch shifts. This means that while one group of meerkats sleeps, another group remains alert.
Humpback whales cooperate at the time of hunting. These swim in groups to corner the prey, so that the work is easier for all. Usually, this cooperative relationship is more stable during the summer.
6- The bees
Bees, like many other insects, show a great deal of cooperation in terms of their work.
In this sense, each type of bee has a function depending on whether they are workers, drones or queens.
Seven examples of cooperation with plants
Mycorrhizae are cooperative relationships between a fungus and a plant. In this relationship, the fungi adhere or penetrate the roots of plants so that they increase the absorption range of the plants. In return, the plant gives the fungus the necessary nutrients to live.
Lichens are an example of symbiosis between a fungus and an algae. In this relationship, the alga provides the food it obtains from photosynthesis while the fungus protects the algae and keeps it moist.
3- Birds and plants
The birds cooperate with the plants to help them reproduce. The flowers of the plants contain nectar that is nourishing for the birds and particles of pollen, necessary for the reproduction.
When the birds approach the flowers to consume the nectar, their plumage is impregnated of pollen, which they transport towards other flowers, fertilizing them.
4- The bees, the bumblebees or other insects and the plants
As with birds, insects consume nectar from the flowers of plants.
In the process, the villi of the body of these insects are impregnated with pollen that they transport towards other flowers.
5- The root grafts
The roots of two or more trees can be naturally joined together to share nutrients, hormones and other nutrients.
6- The hermit crab and the sea anemone
Anemones are attached to the shells of crabs. The crab serves the transport anemone, while the anemone offers food and protection.
7- Clown fish and anemones
Anemones cause stinging in most fish except for clown fish, which have mucus on the skin that protects them. In this way, the clown fish gets a home and the anemone gets protection from the clown fish.
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