10 Factors Influencing Population Growth

Population growth is influenced by various factors and dynamics that are manifested at global and local scales and have led to the distribution of the current population.

Population growth is a global priority because of the problems posed by the demographic explosion of recent years.

10 Factors Influencing Population Growth Population growth in countries with different levels of development. Source: United Nations

At present there is no program that develops the concepts necessary to face the problem of overpopulation.

The development of a methodology to address the problem of overpopulation must take into account the factors that influence the population growth of a country and the world.

These factors include economic, military, political, social and moral issues.

The first step to confront population growth is the education of individuals in the subject focused on the factors that influence the problem.

Some of these factors are:

Urbanization of the population

The concentration of communities has accelerated the growth of populations. 1800 years ago there were 750 cities with more than 5000 inhabitants and 45 with more than 100000 inhabitants.

There are now more than 28,000 cities with more than 5000 inhabitants and about 1000 with more than 100000 inhabitants.

Increase in life expectancy

The growing number of older people who are now in existence thanks to medical and social advances increase the world population.

Availability of resources

One of the most determinant factors in population growth is the availability of food and energy resources to maintain the dynamics of growth.

Political decisions

The political initiatives of the countries can influence the population growth that occurs in their territories.

These decisions can range from the reception of immigrants to the control of the amount of offspring that a person can have.

Large-scale armed conflicts

Events such as the first and Second World War , The Middle East wars and political purges in authoritarian regimes have come to affect population growth at local and global levels.


In ancient human populations the climate was an important factor of population control. Currently the effect of climate is not so obvious.

However, processes such as climate change are a determining factor in the future of population growth.


Economic dynamics between different countries largely define population growth in the regions.

Currently, while developed countries have low population growth, developing countries have high rates of population growth.

Natural disasters and diseases

Large-scale natural phenomena such as droughts or large earthquakes affect the dynamics of population growth at local levels.

Diseases and Epidemics On a large scale have influenced global population growth.

Slavery and colonization processes

Many populations have seen their growth affected by colonization processes such as the case of the American Indian population after the arrival of Europeans to America and the decline of the West African population by the enslaving processes of the nineteenth century.

Other local factors in small populations

The establishment of growing commercial zones, pollution, local armed conflicts and small-scale natural disasters are determining factors in population fluctuations in small areas although they do not greatly influence global population growth.


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